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  1. Previous research has considered action and adventure sports using a variety of associated terms and definitions which has led to confusing discourse and contradictory research findings. Traditional narratives...

    Authors: Tuomas Immonen, Eric Brymer, Dominic Orth, Keith Davids, Francesco Feletti, Jarmo Liukkonen and Timo Jaakkola
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:18
  2. Gorkhas, a sub-mountainous population of the Himalayan region, are known for strength and bravery. In the present study when “Gorkha” is used without brackets, we are mentioning Gorkhas of Tibeto-Burman origin...

    Authors: Seema Malhotra, Kiran Preet, Arvind Tomar, Shweta Rawat, Sayar Singh, Inderjeet Singh, L. Robert Varte, Tirthankar Chatterjee, M. S. Pal and Soma Sarkar
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:17
  3. Susceptible to injury, the neck is subject to scientific investigations, frequently aiming to elucidate possible injury mechanisms via surface electromyography (EMG) by indirectly estimating cervical loads. Ac...

    Authors: Riccardo Lo Martire, Kristofer Gladh, Anton Westman and Björn O. Äng
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:16
  4. The main mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity is an uncontrolled inflammatory response against self-antigens. Therefore, anti-inflammatory factors, such as the intake of bioactive compounds a...

    Authors: Leandro Kansuke Oharomari, Camila de Moraes and Anderson Marliere Navarro
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:15
  5. Riboflavin is known to protect tissue from oxidative damage but, to our knowledge, has not been explored as a means to control exercise-related muscle soreness. This study investigated whether acute ingestion ...

    Authors: Martin D. Hoffman, Taylor R. Valentino, Kristin J. Stuempfle and Brandon V. Hassid
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:14
  6. The deleterious effects of dehydration on athletic and cognitive performance have been well documented. As such, dehydrated individuals are advised to consume fluid in volumes equivalent to 1.25 to 1.5 L kg−1 bod...

    Authors: Danielle McCartney, Ben Desbrow and Christopher Irwin
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:13
  7. The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated.

    Authors: Belén Feriche, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho and Paulino Padial
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:12
  8. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a recognized condition in the lower limb, with many reports in the literature. However, very few instances include CECS of the upper limb. This article present...

    Authors: Austin Cole, John L. Hiatt, Christopher Arnold, Terry Sites and Ramon Ylanon
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:11
  9. Accurately measuring physical activity and energy expenditure in persons with chronic physical disabilities who use wheelchairs is a considerable and ongoing challenge. Quantifying various free-living lifestyl...

    Authors: Tom E. Nightingale, Peter C. Rouse, Dylan Thompson and James L. J. Bilzon
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:10
  10. Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a grappling combat sport that has intermittency as its core element; in other words, actions of high, moderate and low intensity are interspersed during matches, requiring a high level o...

    Authors: Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Francisco Javier Díaz Lara, Alexandro Andrade and Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:9
  11. Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, an...

    Authors: Juliane Heydenreich, Bengt Kayser, Yves Schutz and Katarina Melzer
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:8
  12. Plyometric training has been shown to increase muscle power, running economy, and performance in athletes. Despite its use by rowing coaches, it is unknown whether plyometrics might improve rowing economy or p...

    Authors: Julian D. Egan-Shuttler, Rohan Edmonds, Cassandra Eddy, Veronica O’Neill and Stephen J. Ives
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:7
  13. Mechanical loading during exercise has been shown to promote tissue remodeling. Safe and accessible exercise may be beneficial to populations at risk of diminished bone and joint health. We examined the effect...

    Authors: Dmitry Verniba, Jason D. Vescovi, David A. Hood and William H. Gage
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:6
  14. Nicotine use amongst athletes is high and increasing, especially team sports, yet the limited previous studies investigating the performance consequences of this behaviour have not examined the effects of the ...

    Authors: Toby Mündel, Marine Machal, Darryl J. Cochrane and Matthew J. Barnes
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:5
  15. There is evidence for considerable heterogeneity in the responsiveness to regular physical activity (PA) which might reflect the influence of genetic factors. The aim of this systematic review was to assess wh...

    Authors: J. R. Zadro, D. Shirley, T. B. Andrade, K. J Scurrah, A. Bauman and P. H. Ferreira
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:4
  16. Performance tests are used for multiple purposes in exercise and sport science. Ensuring that a test displays an appropriate level of measurement properties for use within a population is important to ensure c...

    Authors: Sam Robertson, Peter Kremer, Brad Aisbett, Jacqueline Tran and Ester Cerin
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:2
  17. Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) have both been suggested as non-invasive markers for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. A complete cervical spinal cord injury leading to tetraple...

    Authors: Christof A. Leicht, Thomas A. W. Paulson, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey and Nicolette C. Bishop
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2017 3:1
  18. The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance c...

    Authors: Julie Meurrens, Thomas Steiner, Jonathan Ponette, Hans Antonius Janssen, Monique Ramaekers, Jon Peter Wehrlin, Philippe Vandekerckhove and Louise Deldicque
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:43
  19. Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population...

    Authors: Andrew D. Schreiner, Brad A. Keith, Karen E. Abernathy, Jingwen Zhang and Walter A. Brzezinski
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:42
  20. A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate abou...

    Authors: Jason C. Siegler, Paul W. M. Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw and Simon Green
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:41
  21. Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits.

    Authors: Sabina Cauci, Cinzia Buligan, Micaela Marangone and Maria Pia Francescato
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:40
  22. Effective interventions are needed for individuals with persisting post-concussion symptoms. High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM®) is an allostatic, closed-loop, a...

    Authors: Charles H. Tegeler, Catherine L. Tegeler, Jared F. Cook, Sung W. Lee, Lee Gerdes, Hossam A. Shaltout, Christopher M. Miles and Sean L. Simpson
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:39
  23. Sports-related concussion remains a public health challenge due to its morbidity and mortality. One of the consequences of concussion is cognitive impairment (CI) and cognitive-related symptoms (CRS) which det...

    Authors: Laurens Holmes Jr, Joshua Tworig, Joseph Casini, Isabel Morgan, Kathleen O’Brien, Patricia Oceanic and Kirk Dabney
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:38
  24. Many researchers have considered the impact of physical exercise on perceptual-cognitive performance. There have also been a substantial number of studies that have examined how perceptual-cognitive skills dif...

    Authors: M. Schapschröer, S. Lemez, J. Baker and J. Schorer
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:37
  25. This study examined substrate oxidation at high-intensity exercise and aimed to determine when fat oxidation ends (FATmin). We hypothesized the existence of a connection between the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and ...

    Authors: Ratko Peric, Marco Meucci and Zoran Nikolovski
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:35
  26. Some endurance athletes exhibit exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during high-intensity exercise. Inhalation of hyperoxic gas during exercise has been shown to counteract this exercise-associated reduction i...

    Authors: Toshiyuki Ohya, Ryo Yamanaka, Hayato Ohnuma, Masahiro Hagiwara and Yasuhiro Suzuki
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:34
  27. Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physica...

    Authors: Thomas Wyss, Maria Boesch, Lilian Roos, Céline Tschopp, Klaus M. Frei, Hubert Annen and Roberto La Marca
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:33
  28. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity.

    Authors: Naruto Yoshida, Shun Kunugi, Sonoko Mashimo, Yoshihiro Okuma, Akihiko Masunari, Shogo Miyazaki, Tatsuya Hisajima and Shumpei Miyakawa
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:32
  29. Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance in patients with chronic diseases. However, th...

    Authors: Daniela Bassi, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Vivian Maria Arakelian, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, José Carlos Bonjorno Júnior, Ross Arena and Audrey Borghi-Silva
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:31
  30. Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concen...

    Authors: Liz Gough, Lindy M. Castell, Rosalba Gatti and Richard J. Godfrey
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:30
  31. Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this st...

    Authors: Kayle Shapero, James Deluca, Miranda Contursi, Meagan Wasfy, Rory B. Weiner, Gregory D. Lewis, Adolph Hutter and Aaron L. Baggish
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:29
  32. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible disease that diminishes length and quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests CKD progression and genomic integrity are inversely and causally related. To reduc...

    Authors: Patrick S. Tucker, Aaron T. Scanlan, Rebecca K. Vella and Vincent J. Dalbo
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:28
  33. Swimming is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Competitive swimming is one of the most watched sports during the Olympic Games. Swimming has unique medical challenges as a result of a variety of environ...

    Authors: Morteza Khodaee, George T. Edelman, Jack Spittler, Randall Wilber, Brian J. Krabak, Daniel Solomon, Scott Riewald, Alicia Kendig, Laura M. Borgelt, Mark Riederer, Vladimir Puzovic and Scott Rodeo
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:27
  34. Current literature evaluating body mass (BM) changes across a variety of running race distances is limited. The primary objective of this study was to profile the range of BM changes across race distances. The...

    Authors: Desmond Wei Tan, Si Hui Yap, Mingchang Wang, Priscilla Weiping Fan, Ya Shi Teo, Priathashini Krishnasamy, Lingaraj Krishna, Tamara Hew-Butler and Jason Kai Wei Lee
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:26
  35. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global death. Physical activity can help individuals reduce their CVD risk. However, the biological mechanisms explaining the link between physical activity...

    Authors: Heather Brown, Frauke Becker and Kofi Antwi
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:25
  36. While the words “fit” and “healthy” are often used synonymously in everyday language, the terms have entirely separate meanings. Fitness describes the ability to perform a given exercise task, and health expla...

    Authors: Philip B. Maffetone and Paul B. Laursen
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:24
  37. Anemia has been implicated in adverse health outcomes of athletes and military trainees, ranging from overuse injuries to degraded physical and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to investiga...

    Authors: Kathryn E. Myhre, Bryant J. Webber, Thomas L. Cropper, Juste N. Tchandja, Dale M. Ahrendt, Christopher A. Dillon, Roy W. Haas, Samantha L. Guy, Mary T. Pawlak and Susan P. Federinko
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:23
  38. Injuries are common within military populations, with high incidence rates well established in the literature. Injuries cause a substantial number of working days lost, a significant cost through compensation ...

    Authors: Kimberley A. Andersen, Paul N. Grimshaw, Richard M. Kelso and David J. Bentley
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:22
  39. Strenuous physical activity activates the participant’s immune responses; however, few studies exist, observing exercise-induced simultaneous changes in mediators of inflammation.

    Authors: Markus Niemelä, Päivikki Kangastupa, Onni Niemelä, Risto Bloigu and Tatu Juvonen
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:21
  40. In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safet...

    Authors: Philip Dickinson and Philip Rempel
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:19
  41. Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skept...

    Authors: Paolo T. Pianosi, Zhen Zhang, Paul Hernandez and Marianne Huebner
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:17
  42. Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring...

    Authors: Ricardo J. S. Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer and Andrew Murray
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2016 2:16
  43. Ultramarathon runners commonly believe that sodium replacement is important for prevention of muscle cramping, dehydration, hyponatremia, and nausea during prolonged continuous exercise. The purpose of this st...

    Authors: Martin D. Hoffman, Kristin J. Stuempfle and Taylor Valentino
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2015 1:39
  44. The female athlete triad (Triad) is a serious condition with lifelong consequences seen in physically active females. Prior studies assessing Triad knowledge among coaches/athletic trainers reported surprising...

    Authors: Emily J. Curry, Catherine Logan, Kathryn Ackerman, Kelly C. McInnis and Elizabeth G. Matzkin
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2015 1:38
  45. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality. Although the incidence may be reduced with regular exercise, the health benefits of a single bout of exercise on selected CVD risk factors...

    Authors: William M. C. Brown, Gareth W. Davison, Conor M. McClean and Marie H. Murphy
    Citation: Sports Medicine - Open 2015 1:35

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