Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806–14.
West DS, DiLillo V, Bursac Z, Gore SA, Greene PG. Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(5):1081–7.
Patrick K, Raab F, Adams MA, Dillon L, Zabinski M, Rock CL, et al. A text message-based intervention for weight loss: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2009;11(1), e1.
Petry NM, Barry D, Pescatello L, White WB. A low-cost reinforcement procedure improves short-term weight loss outcomes. Am J Med. 2011;124(11):1082–5.
Christensen R, Kristensen PK, Bartels EM, Bliddal H, Astrup A. Efficacy and safety of the weight-loss drug rimonabant: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. The Lancet. 2007;370(9600):1706–13.
Donnelly JE, Hill JO, Jacobsen DJ, Potteiger J, Sullivan DK, et al. Effects of a 16-month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: the Midwest Exercise Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(11):1343–50.
Jeffery RW, Epstein LH, Wilson GT, Drewnowski A, Stunkard AJ, Wing RR. Long-term maintenance of weight loss: current status. Health psychology. 2000;19(1S):5.
Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(2):459–71.
Thompson WR, Pescatello LS, Gordon NF. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 2010.
Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1423–34.
Rankinen T, Zuberi A, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel SJ, Argyropoulos G, Walts B, et al. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Obesity. 2006;14(4):529–644.
Borjeson M. The aetiology of obesity in children. A study of 101 twin pairs. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1976;65(3):279–87.
Rice T, Borecki IB, Bouchard C, Rao DC. Segregation analysis of body mass index in an unselected French-Canadian sample: the Quebec Family Study. Obes Res. 1993;1(4):288–94.
Stunkard AJ, Foch TT, Hrubec Z. A twin study of human obesity. JAMA. 1986;256(1):51–4.
Bray MS, Sailors MH. The Interaction between Genetic Variation and Exercise and Physical Activity in the Determination of Body Composition and Obesity Status. In: Exercise Genomics. Volume Exercise Genomics. Edited by Pescatello LS, Roth SM. 233 Spring st, New York, NY 10013 USA: Human Press; 2011.
Willer CJ, Speliotes EK, Loos RJ, Li S, Lindgren CM, et al. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation. Nat Genet. 2009;41(1):25–34.
Ahmad S, Rukh G, Varga TV, Ali A, Kurbasic A, Shungin DE, et al. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry. PLoS genetics. 2013;9(7), e1003607.
Li S, Zhao JH, Luan J, Ekelund U, Luben RN, Khaw KT, et al. Physical activity attenuates the genetic predisposition to obesity in 20,000 men and women from EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. PLoS Med. 2010;7(8), e1000332.
Kilpelainen TO, Qi L, Brage S, Sharp SJ, Sonestedt E, Demerath E, et al. Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children. PLoS Med. 2011;8(11), e1001116.
Orkunoglu-Suer FE, Harmon BT, Gordish-Dressman H, Clarkson PM, Thompson PD, Angelopoulos TJ, et al. MC4R variant is associated with BMI but not response to resistance training in young females. Obesity. 2011;19(3):662–6.
Wagner GP, Zhang J. The pleiotropic structure of the genotype–phenotype map: the evolvability of complex organisms. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2011;12(3):204–13.
Solovieff N, Cotsapas C, Lee PH, Purcell SM, Smoller JW. Pleiotropy in complex traits: challenges and strategies. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2013;14(7):483–95.
Mathes WF, Nehrenberg DL, Gordon R, Hua K, Garland Jr T, Pomp D. Dopaminergic dysregulation in mice selectively bred for excessive exercise or obesity. Behav Brain Res. 2010;210(2):155–63.
Rhodes JS, Hosack GR, Girard I, Kelley AE, Mitchell GS, Garland Jr T. Differential sensitivity to acute administration of cocaine, GBR 12909, and fluoxetine in mice selectively bred for hyperactive wheel-running behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001;158(2):120–31.
Knab AM, Bowen RS, Hamilton AT, Gulledge AA, Lightfoot JT. Altered dopaminergic profiles: implications for the regulation of voluntary physical activity. Behav Brain Res. 2009;204(1):147–52.
Thompson PD, Moyna N, Seip R, Price T, Clarkson P, Angelopoulos T, et al. Functional polymorphisms associated with human muscle size and strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(7):1132–9.
Harris JK, French SA, Jeffery RW, McGovern PG, Wing RR. Dietary and physical activity correlates of long-term weight loss. Obes Res. 1994;2(4):307–13.
Paffenbarger Jr RS, Wing AL, Hyde RT. Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108(3):161–75.
Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett Jr DR, Tudor-Locke C, et al. 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):1575–81.
International HapMap Consortium. A haplotype map of the human genome. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1299–320.
Bassett Jr DR, Freedson P, Kozey S. Medical hazards of prolonged sitting. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38(3):101–2.
Loos RJF, Lindgren CM, Li S, Wheeler E, Zhao JH, Prokopenko I, et al. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity. Nat Genet. 2008;40(6):768–75.
Richmond RC, Davey Smith G, Ness AR, den Hoed M, McMahon G, Timpson NJ. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis. PLoS Med. 2014;11(3), e1001618.
Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Jeffery AN, Voss LD, Henley W, Wilkin TJ. Fatness leads to inactivity, but inactivity does not lead to fatness: a longitudinal study in children (EarlyBird 45). Arch Dis Child. 2011;96(10):942–7.
Ekelund U, Brage S, Besson H, Sharp S, Wareham NJ. Time spent being sedentary and weight gain in healthy adults: reverse or bidirectional causality? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(3):612–7.
Lenard NR, Berthoud HR. Central and peripheral regulation of food intake and physical activity: pathways and genes. Obesity. 2008;16 Suppl 3:S11–22.
Cecil JE, Tavendale R, Watt P, Hetherington MM, Palmer CN. An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(24):2558–66.
Rask-Andersen M, Jacobsson JA, Moschonis G, Chavan RA, Sikder MA, Allzen E, et al. Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20(2):192–7.
Bauer F, Elbers CC, Adan RA, Loos RJ, Onland-Moret NC, Grobbee DE, et al. Obesity genes identified in genome-wide association studies are associated with adiposity measures and potentially with nutrient-specific food preference. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(4):951–9.
Lightfoot JT. Current understanding of the genetic basis for physical activity. J Nutr. 2011;141(3):526–30.
Davis CA, Levitan RD, Reid C, Carter JC, Kaplan AS, Patte KA, et al. Dopamine for “wanting” and opioids for “liking”: a comparison of obese adults with and without binge eating. Obesity. 2009;17(6):1220–5.
Davis JF, Tracy AL, Schurdak JD, Tschöp MH, Lipton JW, Clegg DJ, et al. Exposure to elevated levels of dietary fat attenuates psychostimulant reward and mesolimbic dopamine turnover in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience; Behavioral Neuroscience. 2008;122(6):1257.
Paulhus DL. Measurement and control of response bias. In: Robinson JP, Shaver PR, Wrightsman LS, editors. Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. San Diego, CA: Academic; 1991. p. 17–59.
Albanes D, Conway JM, Taylor PR, Moe PW, Judd J. Validation and comparison of eight physical activity questionnaires. Epidemiology. 1990;1(1):65–71.
Ahima RS, Lazar MA. The Health Risk of Obesity- Better Metrics Imperative. Science. 2013;341(6148):856–8.
Hagberg JM, Rankinen T, Loos RJ, Perusse L, Roth SM, Wolfarth B, et al. Advances in exercise, fitness, and performance genomics in 2010. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(5):743–52.
Vink JM, Boomsma DI, Medland SE, de Moor MH, Stubbe JH, Cornes BK, et al. Variance components models for physical activity with age as modifier: a comparative twin study in seven countries. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2011;14(1):25–34.