United States National Library of Medicine N. Medical subject headings, MeSH. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/?term=water+sport. 2021. Date of acces: 1st Jan 2021.
Dictionary OAA. Water sports. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/water-sports. Access date: 5th Jan 2022.
FINA. 2021. Available from http://www.fina.org. Accessed 1st Jan 2021.
IOC. Access date: 1st Jan 2021. https://olympics.com/en/sports/. 2021;International Olympic Committee.
Troup JP. The physiology and biomechanics of competitive swimming. Clin Sports Med. 1999;18(2):267–85.
Arce-Álvarez A, Veliz C, Vazquez-Muñoz M, von Igel M, Alvares C, Ramirez-Campillo R, et al. Hypoxic respiratory chemoreflex control in young trained swimmers. Front Physiol. 2021;12:632603.
Hagerman FC. Applied physiology of rowing. Sports Med. 1984;1(4):303–26.
Lavoie JM, Montpetit RR. Applied physiology of swimming. Sports Med. 1986;3(3):165–89.
O’Toole ML, Douglas PS. Applied physiology of triathlon. Sports Med. 1995;19(4):251–67.
Guellich A, Seiler S, Emrich E. Training methods and intensity distribution of young world-class rowers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4(4):448–60.
Fiskerstrand A, Seiler KS. Training and performance characteristics among Norwegian international rowers 1970–2001. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14(5):303–10.
Reilly T, Morris T, Whyte G. The specificity of training prescription and physiological assessment: a review. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(6):575–89.
Arellano R, Sánchez J, Valdivielso F, Aymerich J. Analysis of 100-m backstroke, breastroke, butterfly and freestyle swimmers at the 2001 European youth Olympic days; 2002.
Phukan MI, Thapa RK, Kumar G, Bishop C, Chaabene H, Ramirez-Campillo R. Inter-limb jump asymmetries and their association with sport-specific performance in young male and female swimmers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(14):7324.
Maciejewski H, Rahmani A, Chorin F, Lardy J, Samozino P, Ratel S. Methodological considerations on the relationship between the 1500-m rowing ergometer performance and vertical jump in national-level adolescent rowers. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(11):3000–7.
Loturco I, Barbosa AC, Nocentini RK, Pereira LA, Kobal R, Kitamura K, et al. A correlational analysis of tethered swimming, swim sprint performance and dry-land power assessments. Int J Sports Med. 2016;37(3):211–8.
Garrido N, Marinho DA, Barbosa TM, Costa AM, Silva AJ, Pérez-Turpin JA, et al. Relationships between dry land strength, power variables and short sprint performance in young competitive swimmers. J Hum Sport Exerc II. 2010;5(2):10.
Marinho DA, Neiva HP, Branquinho L, Ferraz R. Anthropometric characterization and muscle strength parameters in young female swimmers at national level: the relationship with performance in the 50 m freestyle. J Hum Sport Exerc. 2021;16(2proc):S295–306.
Alfőldi Z, Borysławski K, Ihasz F, Soós I, Podstawski R. Differences in the anthropometric and physiological profiles of hungarian male rowers of various age categories, rankings and career lengths: selection problems. Front Physiol. 2021;12:747781.
De Siati F, Laffaye G, Gatta G, Dello Iacono A, Ardigò LP, Padulo J. Neuromuscular and technical abilities related to age in water-polo players. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(15):1466–72.
Pan D, Zhong B, Guo W, Xu Y. Physical fitness characteristics and performance in single-handed dinghy and 470 classes sailors. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2022;20(1):9–15.
Cosgrove MJ, Wilson J, Watt D, Grant SF. The relationship between selected physiological variables of rowers and rowing performance as determined by a 2000 m ergometer test. J Sports Sci. 1999;17(11):845–52.
Maciejewski H, Rahmani A, Chorin F, Lardy J, Giroux C, Ratel S. The 1,500-m rowing performance is highly dependent on modified wingate anaerobic test performance in national-level adolescent rowers. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2016;28(4):572–9.
Mujika I, Crowley E. Strength training for swimmers. In: Schumann M, Rønnestad BR, editors. Concurrent aerobic and strength training: scientific basics and practical applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. p. 369–86.
Costa MJ, Bragada JA, Marinho DA, Silva AJ, Barbosa TM. Longitudinal interventions in elite swimming: a systematic review based on energetics, biomechanics, and performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(7):2006–16.
Nugent F, Comyns T, Nevill A, Warrington GD. The effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance parameters in competitive youth swimmers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(2):203–8.
Turner KJ, Pyne DB, Périard JD, Rice AJ. High-intensity interval training and sprint-interval training in national-level rowers. Front Physiol. 2021;12:803430.
Botonis PG, Malliaros I, Arsoniadis GG, Platanou TI, Toubekis AG. High-intensity training in water polo: swimming versus ball drills. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;15:1–6.
Markovic G, Mikulic P. Neuro-musculoskeletal and performance adaptations to lower-extremity plyometric training. Sports Med. 2010;40(10):859–95.
Ramirez-Campillo R, García-Pinillos F, Nikolaidis TP, Clemente F, Gentil P, García-Hermoso A. Body composition adaptations to lower-body plyometric training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biol Sport. 2021;39:273–87.
Bishop C, Cree J, Read P, Chavda S, Edwards M, Turner A. Strength and conditioning for sprint swimming. Strength Cond J. 2013;35(6):1–6.
Grgic J, Schoenfeld BJ, Mikulic P. Effects of plyometric versus resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: a review. J Sport Health Sci. 2020;6:1–6.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Andrade DC, García-Pinillos F, Negra Y, Boullosa D, Moran J. Effects of jump training on physical fitness and athletic performance in endurance runners: a meta-analysis. J Sports Sci. 2021;6:1–21.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Andrade DC, Nikolaidis PT, Moran J, Clemente FM, Chaabene H, et al. Effects of plyometric jump training on vertical jump height of volleyball players: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trial. J Sport Sci Med. 2020;19:489–99.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Castillo D, Raya-González J, Moran J, de Villarreal ES, Lloyd RS. Effects of plyometric jump training on jump and sprint performance in young male soccer players: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2020;50(12):2125–43.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Gentil P, Negra Y, Grgic J, Girard O. Effects of plyometric jump training on repeated sprint ability in athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2021;51(10):2165–79.
Sáez de Villarreal E, Requena B, Newton RU. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(5):513–22.
Markovic G. Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height? A meta-analytical review. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(6):349–55.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Alvarez C, García-Pinillos F, Sanchez-Sanchez J, Yanci J, Castillo D, et al. Optimal reactive strength index: is it an accurate variable to optimize plyometric training effects on measures of physical fitness in young soccer players? J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(4):885–93.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Moran J, Drury B, Williams M, Keogh JW, Chaabene H, et al. Effects of equal volume but different plyometric jump training intensities on components of physical fitness in physically active young males. J Strength Cond Res. 2021;35(7):1916–23.
Bobbert MF. Drop jumping as a training method for jumping ability. Sports Med. 1990;9(1):7–22.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Moran J, Chaabene H, Granacher U, Behm DG, Garcia-Hermoso A, et al. Methodological characteristics and future directions for plyometric jump training research: a scoping review update. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020;30(6):983–97.
Louder TJ, Bressel E, Nardoni C, Dolny DG. Biomechanical comparison of loaded countermovement jumps performed on land and in water. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(1):25–35.
Louder T, Dolny D, Bressel E. Biomechanical comparison of countermovement jumps performed on land and in water: age effects. J Sport Rehabil. 2018;27(3):249–56.
Triplett NT, Colado JC, Benavent J, Alakhdar Y, Madera J, Gonzalez LM, et al. Concentric and impact forces of single-leg jumps in an aquatic environment versus on land. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(9):1790–6.
Colado JC, Garcia-Masso X, González LM, Triplett NT, Mayo C, Merce J. Two-leg squat jumps in water: an effective alternative to dry land jumps. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(2):118–22.
Martel GF, Harmer ML, Logan JM, Parker CB. Aquatic plyometric training increases vertical jump in female volleyball players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(10):1814–9.
Mullenax PM, Johnson QR, Trevino MA, Smith DB, Jacobson BH, Dawes JJ. The impact of aquatic based plyometric training on jump performance: a critical review. Int J Exerc Sci. 2021;14(6):815–28.
Robinson LE, Devor ST, Merrick MA, Buckworth J. The effects of land versus aquatic plyometrics on power, torque, velocity, and muscle soreness in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(1):84–91.
Stemm JD, Jacobson BH. Comparison of land- and aquatic-based plyometric training on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):568–71.
Louder TJ, Searle CJ, Bressel E. Mechanical parameters and flight phase characteristics in aquatic plyometric jumping. Sports Biomech. 2016;15(3):342–56.
Hermosilla F, Sanders R, González-Mohíno F, Yustres I, González-Rave JM. Effects of dry-land training programs on swimming turn performance: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(17):9340.
Amaro NM, Morouço PG, Marques MC, Batalha N, Neiva H, Marinho DA. A systematic review on dry-land strength and conditioning training on swimming performance. Sci Sports. 2019;34(1):e1–14.
Willems TM, Cornelis JA, De Deurwaerder LE, Roelandt F, De Mits S. The effect of ankle muscle strength and flexibility on dolphin kick performance in competitive swimmers. Hum Mov Sci. 2014;36:167–76.
Sole S, Ramírez-Campillo R, Andrade DC, Sanchez-Sanchez J. Plyometric jump training effects on the physical fitness of individual-sport athletes: a systematic review with meta-analysis. PeerJ. 2021;9:e11004e.
Vlachopoulos D, Barker AR, Ubago-Guisado E, Williams CA, Gracia-Marco L. The effect of a high-impact jumping intervention on bone mass, bone stiffness and fitness parameters in adolescent athletes. Arch Osteoporosis. 2018;13(1):128.
Racil G, Jlid MC, Bouzid MS, Sioud R, Khalifa R, Amri M, et al. Effects of flexibility combined with plyometric exercises versus isolated plyometric or flexibility mode in adolescent male hurdlers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2020;60(1):45–52.
Radwan NL, Mahmoud WS, Mohamed RA, Ibrahim MM. Effect of adding plyometric training to physical education sessions on specific biomechanical parameters in primary school girls. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2021;21(2):237–46.
Silva AF, Clemente FM, Lima R, Nikolaidis PT, Rosemann T, Knechtle B. The effect of plyometric training in volleyball players: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(16):2960.
Afonso J, Clemente FM, Nakamura FY, Morouço P, Sarmento H, Inman RA, et al. The effectiveness of post-exercise stretching in short-term and delayed recovery of strength, range of motion and delayed onset muscle soreness: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Front Physiol. 2021;12:677581.
Afonso J, Ramirez-Campillo R, Moscão J, Rocha T, Zacca R, Martins A, et al. Strength training versus stretching for improving range of motion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;9(4):427.
Afonso J, Claudino JG, Fonseca H, Moreira-Gonçalves D, Ferreira V, Almeida JM, et al. Stretching for recovery from groin pain or injury in athletes: a critical and systematic review. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2021;6(3):73.
Afonso J, Rocha-Rodrigues S, Clemente FM, Aquino M, Nikolaidis PT, Sarmento H, et al. The hamstrings: anatomic and physiologic variations and their potential relationships with injury risk. Front Physiol. 2021;12:694604.
Croisier JL, Forthomme B, Namurois MH, Vanderthommen M, Crielaard JM. Hamstring muscle strain recurrence and strength performance disorders. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(2):199–203.
Abt G, Boreham C, Davison G, Jackson R, Nevill A, Wallace E, et al. Power, precision, and sample size estimation in sport and exercise science research. J Sports Sci. 2020;38(17):1933–5.
Cossor JM, Blanksby BA, Elliott BC. The influence of plyometric training on the freestyle tumble turn. J Sci Med Sport. 1999;2(2):106–16.
Fone L, van den Tillaar R. Effect of different types of strength training on swimming performance in competitive swimmers: a systematic review. Sports Med Open. 2022;8(1):19.
Thiele D, Prieske O, Chaabene H, Granacher U. Effects of strength training on physical fitness and sport-specific performance in recreational, sub-elite, and elite rowers: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Sports Sci. 2020;38(10):1186–95.
Murad MH, Asi N, Alsawas M, Alahdab F. New evidence pyramid. Evid Based Med. 2016;21(4):125–7.
Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ. 2009;339:b2700.
Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ. 2021;29(372):n71.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Alvarez C, Garcia-Hermoso A, Ramirez-Velez R, Gentil P, Asadi A, et al. Methodological characteristics and future directions for plyometric jump training research: a scoping review. Sports Med. 2018;48(5):1059–81.
Ben Abdelkrim N, El Fazaa S, El Ati J. Time-motion analysis and physiological data of elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(2):69–75.
Delextrat A, Cohen D. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1066–72.
García-Hermoso A, Alonso-Martínez AM, Ramírez-Vélez R, Pérez-Sousa M, Ramírez-Campillo R, Izquierdo M. Association of physical education with improvement of health-related physical fitness outcomes and fundamental motor skills among youths: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(6):e200223.
Garcia-Hermoso A, Ramirez-Campillo R, Izquierdo M. Is muscular fitness associated with future health benefits in children and adolescents? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Sports Med. 2019;49(7):1079–94.
Garcia-Hermoso A, Ramirez-Velez R, Ramirez-Campillo R, Peterson MD, Martinez-Vizcaino V. Concurrent aerobic plus resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise alone to improve health outcomes in paediatric obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(3):161–6.
Reilly T, Bangsbo J, Franks A. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. J Sports Sci. 2000;18(9):669–83.
Slinde F, Suber C, Suber L, Edwen CE, Svantesson U. Test–retest reliability of three different countermovement jumping tests. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):640–4.
Altmann S, Ringhof S, Neumann R, Woll A, Rumpf MC. Validity and reliability of speed tests used in soccer: a systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(8):e0220982.
Grgic J, Lazinica B, Schoenfeld BJ, Pedisic Z. Test–retest reliability of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testassessment: a systematic review. Sports Med Open. 2020;6:1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-020-00260-z.
Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test : a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med. 2008;38(1):37–51.
Drevon D, Fursa SR, Malcolm AL. Intercoder reliability and validity of WebPlotDigitizer in extracting graphed data. Behav Modif. 2016;41(2):323–39.
de Morton NA. The PEDro scale is a valid measure of the methodological quality of clinical trials: a demographic study. Aust J Physiother. 2009;55(2):129–33.
Maher CG, Sherrington C, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Elkins M. Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther. 2003;83(8):713–21.
Yamato TP, Maher C, Koes B, Moseley A. The PEDro scale had acceptably high convergent validity, construct validity, and interrater reliability in evaluating methodological quality of pharmaceutical trials. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017;86:176–81.
Stojanović E, Ristić V, McMaster DT, Milanović Z. Effect of plyometric training on vertical jump performance in female athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017;47(5):975–86.
Asadi A, Arazi H, Young WB, Saez de Villarreal E. The effects of plyometric training on change-of-direction ability: a meta-analysis. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(5):563–73.
Cashin AG, McAuley JH. Clinimetrics: physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. J Physiother. 2020;66(1):59.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Sanchez-Sanchez J, Romero-Moraleda B, Yanci J, Garcia-Hermoso A, Manuel CF. Effects of plyometric jump training in female soccer player’s vertical jump height: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Sports Sci. 2020;38(13):1475–87.
Valentine JC, Pigott TD, Rothstein HR. How many studies do you need?: a primer on statistical power for meta-analysis. J Educ Behav Stat. 2010;35(2):215–47.
Pigott T. Advances in meta-analysis. New York: Springer; 2012.
Arnett MG, Lutz B. Effects of rope-jump training on the os calcis stiffness index of postpubescent girls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(12):1913–9.
Moran J, Ramirez-Campillo R, Granacher U. Effects of jumping exercise on muscular power in older adults: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2018;48(12):2843–57.
Deeks JJ, Higgins JP, Altman DG. Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses. In: Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: the Cochrane collaboration. Chichester: Wiley; 2008. p. 243–96.
Kontopantelis E, Springate DA, Reeves D. A re-analysis of the Cochrane Library data: the dangers of unobserved heterogeneity in meta-analyses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(7):e69930.
Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):3–13.
Higgins JPT, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Special topics in statistics. In: Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: the Cochrane collaboration. Chichester: Wiley; 2008. p. 481–529.
Higgins JPT, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2002;21(11):1539–58.
Higgins JPT, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, et al. Assessing risk of bias due to missing results in a synthesis. In: Higgins J, Green S, editors., et al., Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley; 2019. p. 365.
Sterne JAC, Sutton AJ, Ioannidis JPA, Terrin N, Jones DR, Lau J, et al. Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2011;343:d4002.
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315(7109):629–34.
Duval S, Tweedie R. Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics. 2000;56(2):455–63.
Shi L, Lin L. The trim-and-fill method for publication bias: practical guidelines and recommendations based on a large database of meta-analyses. Medicine. 2019;98(23):e15987.
Moran J, Clark CCT, Ramirez-Campillo R, Davies MJ, Drury B. A meta-analysis of plyometric training in female youth: its efficacy and shortcomings in the literature. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33:1996–2008. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002768
Moran J, Sandercock G, Ramirez-Campillo R, Clark CCT, Fernandes JFT, Drury B. A meta-analysis of resistance training in female youth: its effect on muscular strength, and shortcomings in the literature. Sports Med. 2018;48:1661–71.
Moran J, Sandercock GR, Ramirez-Campillo R, Meylan C, Collison J, Parry DA. A meta-analysis of maturation-related variation in adolescent boy athletes’ adaptations to short-term resistance training. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(11):1041–51.
Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Akl EA, Kunz R, Vist G, Brozek J, et al. GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011;64(4):383–94.
Zhang Y, Alonso-Coello P, Guyatt GH, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Akl EA, Hazlewood G, et al. GRADE Guidelines: 19. Assessing the certainty of evidence in the importance of outcomes or values and preferences—risk of bias and indirectness. J Clin Epidemiol. 2019;111:94–104.
Zhang Y, Coello PA, Guyatt GH, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Akl EA, Hazlewood G, et al. GRADE guidelines: 20. Assessing the certainty of evidence in the importance of outcomes or values and preferences—inconsistency, imprecision, and other domains. J Clin Epidemiol. 2019;111:83–93.
Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Brozek J, Alonso-Coello P, Rind D, et al. Corrigendum to GRADE guidelines 6. Rating the quality of evidence-imprecision. J Clin Epidemiol 2011;64:1283–1293. J Clin Epidemiol. 2021;137:265.
Saez de Villarreal E, Suarez-Arrones L, Requena B, Haff GG, Ramos Veliz R. Enhancing performance in professional water polo players: dryland training, in-water training, and combined training. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(4):1089–97.
Saez de Villarreal ES, Suarez-Arrones L, Requena B, Haff GG, Ramos-Veliz R. Effects of dry-land versus in-water specific strength training on professional male water polo players’ performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(11):3179–87.
Escrivá-Sellés FR, González-Badillo JJ. Effect of two periods of power training on performance in the thrust, barracuda and boost exercises in synchronised swimming. Apunts Ed Fis Deport. 2020;142:35–45.
Kamandulis S, Snieckus A, Venckunas T, Aagaard P, Masiulis N, Skurvydas A. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(11):2953–61.
Lyttle AD, Wilson GJ, Ostrowski KJ. Enhancing performance: maximal power versus combined weights and plyometrics training. J Strength Cond Res. 1996;10(3):173–9.
Marques MC, Yáñez-García JM, Marinho DA, González-Badillo JJ, Rodríguez-Rosell D. In-season strength training in elite junior swimmers: the role of the low-volume, high-velocity training on swimming performance. J Hum Kinet. 2020;74(1):71–84.
Polhemus R, Burkhardt E. The effects of plyometric training with ankle and vest weights on conventional weight training programs for mess and women. Nat Strength Coach Assoc J. 1980;2(1):13–5.
Rejman M, Bilewski M, Szczepan S, Klarowicz A, Rudnik D, Mackala K. Assessing the impact of a targeted plyometric training on changes in selected kinematic parameters of the swimming start. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2017;19(2):149–60.
van der Zwaard S, Koppens TFP, Weide G, Levels K, Hofmijster MJ, de Koning JJ, et al. Training-induced muscle adaptations during competitive preparation in elite female rowers. Front Sports Active Liv. 2021;3:781942.
Amaro NM, Marinho DA, Marques MC, Batalha NP, Morouço PG. Effects of dry-land strength and conditioning programs in age group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(9):2447–54.
Aurell-Badenas V, Murias-Lozano R, Rodríguez-López ES, García-Giménez A. Efficacy of plyometrics in the neuromuscular fatigue during triathlon: a pilot study. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fis Dep. 2020;20(79):551–66.
Bellver M, Drobnic F, Jovell E, Ferrer-Roca V, Abalos X, Del Rio L, et al. Jumping rope and whole-body vibration program effects on bone values in Olympic artistic swimmers. J Bone Miner Metab. 2021;39(5):858–67.
Bishop DC, Smith RJ, Smith MF, Rigby HE. Effect of plyometric training on swimming block start performance in adolescents. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):2137–43.
Bonacci J, Green D, Saunders PU, Franettovich M, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Plyometric training as an intervention to correct altered neuromotor control during running after cycling in triathletes: a preliminary randomised controlled trial. Phys Ther Sport. 2011;12(1):15–21.
Born DP, Stöggl T, Petrov A, Burkhardt D, Lüthy F, Romann M. Analysis of freestyle swimming sprint start performance after maximal strength or vertical jump training in competitive female and male junior swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(2):323–31.
Breed RV, Young WB. The effect of a resistance training programme on the grab, track and swing starts in swimming. J Sports Sci. 2003;21(3):213–20.
Cañas-Jamett R, Figueroa-Puig J, Ramirez-Campillo R, Tuesta M. Plyometric training improves swimming performance in recreationally-trained swimmers. Rev Brasil Med Esport. 2020;26(5):436–40.
Egan-Shuttler JD, Edmonds R, Eddy C, O’Neill V, Ives SJ. The Effect of concurrent plyometric training versus submaximal aerobic cycling on rowing economy, peak power, and performance in male high school rowers. Sports Med Open. 2017;3(1):1–10.
Egan-Shuttler JD, Edmonds R, Eddy C, O’Neill V, Ives SJ. Beyond peak, a simple approach to assess rowing power and the impact of training: a technical report. Int J Exerc Sci. 2019;12(6):233–44.
Garrido N, Marinho DA, Reis VM, van den Tillaar R, Costa AM, Silva AJ, et al. Does combined dry land strength and aerobic training inhibit performance of young competitive swimmers? J Sports Sci Med. 2010;9(2):300–10.
Jones JV, Pyne DB, Haff GG, Newton RU. Comparison of ballistic and strength training on swimming turn and dry-land leg extensor characteristics in elite swimmers. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2018;13(2):262–9.
Kramer JF, Morrow A, Leger A. Changes in rowing ergometer, weight-lifting, vertical jump and isokinetic performance in response to standard and standard plus phytometric training-programs. Intern J Sports Med. 1993;14(8):449–54.
Martin MS, Pareja Blanco F, De Villarreal ES. Effects of different in-season strength training methods on strength gains and water polo performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021;16(4):591–600.
Oranchuk DJ, Robinson TL, Switaj ZJ, Drinkwater EJ. Comparison of the hang high pull and loaded jump squat for the development of vertical jump and isometric force-time characteristics. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(1):17–24.
Potdevin FJ, Alberty ME, Chevutschi A, Pelayo P, Sidney MC. Effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on performances in pubescent swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):80–6.
Pupišová Z, Pupiš M, Sýkora J, Brűnn D, Giničová J, Pavlović R. The impact of a specific training programme on the selected parameters of swimming turns. Turk J Kinesiol. 2019;5:36–42.
Ramos-Veliz R, Requena B, Suarez-Arrones L, Newton RU, Saez de Villarreal E. Effects of 18-week in-season heavy-resistance and power training on throwing velocity, strength, jumping, and maximal sprint swim performance of elite male water polo players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(4):1007–14.
Rebutini VZ, Pereira G, Bohrer RC, Ugrinowitsch C, Rodacki AL. Plyometric long jump training with progressive loading improves kinetic and kinematic swimming start parameters. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(9):2392–8.
Sammoud S, Negra Y, Bouguezzi R, Hachana Y, Granacher U, Chaabene H. The effects of plyometric jump training on jump and sport-specific performances in prepubertal female swimmers. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2021;19(1):25–31.
Sammoud S, Negra Y, Chaabene H, Bouguezzi R, Moran J, Granacher U. The effects of plyometric jump training on jumping and swimming performances in prepubertal male swimmers. J Sports Sci Med. 2019;18(4):805–11.
Veliz RR, Suarez-Arrones L, Requena B, Haff GG, Feito J, Saez de Villarreal E. Effects of in-competitive season power-oriented and heavy resistance lower-body training on performance of elite female water polo players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(2):458–65.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Alvarez C, García-Pinillos F, Gentil P, Moran J, Pereira LA, et al. Plyometric training in young male soccer players: potential effect of jump height. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2019;31(3):306–13.
Loturco I, Pereira LA, Kobal R, Zanetti V, Kitamura K, Abad CCC, et al. Transference effect of vertical and horizontal plyometrics on sprint performance of high-level U-20 soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(20):2182–91.
Loturco I, Tricoli V, Roschel H, Nakamura FY, Cal Abad CC, Kobal R, et al. Transference of traditional versus complex strength and power training to sprint performance. J Hum Kinet. 2014;28(41):265–73.
Malisoux L, Francaux M, Nielens H, Renard P, Lebacq J, Theisen D. Calcium sensitivity of human single muscle fibers following plyometric training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(11):1901–8.
Malisoux L, Francaux M, Nielens H, Theisen D. Stretch-shortening cycle exercises: an effective training paradigm to enhance power output of human single muscle fibers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100(3):771–9.
Malisoux L, Francaux M, Theisen D. Effect Of plyometric training on mechanical properties of human single muscle fibres. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2005;37:S288-S.
Moran J, Liew B, Ramirez-Campillo R, Granacher U, Negra Y, Chaabene H. The effects of plyometric jump training on lower-limb stiffness in healthy individuals: a meta-analytical comparison. J Sport Health Sci. 2021;5–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2021.05.005.
West DJ, Owen NJ, Cunningham DJ, Cook CJ, Kilduff LP. Strength and power predictors of swimming starts in international sprint swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(4):950–5.
Chow JWC, Hay JG, Wilson BD, Imel C. Turning techniques of elite swimmers. J Sports Sci. 1984;2(3):241–55.
Aspenes S, Kjendlie PL, Hoff J, Helgerud J. Combined strength and endurance training in competitive swimmers. J Sports Sci Med. 2009;8(3):357–65.
Garrido N, Marinho D, Barbosa T, Costa A, Silva A, Pérez-Turpin J, et al. Relationships between dry land strength, power variables and short sprint performance in young competitive swimmers. J Human Sport Exerc. 2010;5(2):240–9.
Garcia-Pinillos F, Camara-Perez JC, Soto-Hermoso VM, Latorre-Roman PA. A high intensity interval training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(1):146–53.
Gourgoulis V, Boli A, Aggeloussis N, Toubekis A, Antoniou P, Kasimatis P, et al. The effect of leg kick on sprint front crawl swimming. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(3):278–89.
Morais JE, Marinho DA, Arellano R, Barbosa TM. Start and turn performances of elite sprinters at the 2016 European Championships in swimming. Sports Biomech. 2019;18(1):100–14.
Sale DG. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988;20(5 Suppl):S135–45.
Ducrocq GP, Hureau TJ, Meste O, Blain GM. Similar cardioventilatory but greater neuromuscular stimuli with interval drop jump than with interval running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;17:1–10.
Lyons TS, Navalta JW, Stone WJ, Arnett SW, Schafer MA, Igaune L. Evaluation of repetitive jumping intensity on the digi-jump machine. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020;13(2):818–25.
Sáez de Villarreal E, Kellis E, Kraemer WJ, Izquierdo M. Determining variables of plyometric training for improving vertical jump height performance: a meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):495–506.
Sáez de Villarreal E, Requena B, Cronin JB. The effects of plyometric training on sprint performance: a meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(2):575–84.
Lloyd RS, Cronin JB, Faigenbaum AD, Haff GG, Howard R, Kraemer WJ, et al. National strength and conditioning association position statement on long-term athletic development. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(6):1491–509.
Lloyd RS, Oliver JL, Faigenbaum AD, Howard R, De Ste Croix MB, Williams CA, et al. Long-term athletic development, part 2: barriers to success and potential solutions. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(5):1451–64.
Rossler R, Donath L, Verhagen E, Junge A, Schweizer T, Faude O. Exercise-based injury prevention in child and adolescent sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(12):1733–48.
Ebben WP, Carroll RM, Simenz CJ. Strength and conditioning practices of National Hockey League strength and conditioning coaches. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(4):889–97.
Ebben WP, Hintz MJ, Simenz CJ. Strength and conditioning practices of Major League Baseball strength and conditioning coaches. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(3):538–46.
Weldon A, Duncan MJ, Turner A, Sampaio J, Noon M, Wong D, et al. Contemporary practices of strength and conditioning coaches in professional soccer. Biol Sport. 2021;38(3):377–90.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Moran J, Oliver JL, Pedley JS, Lloyd RS, Granacher U. Programming plyometric-jump training in soccer: a review. Sports. 2022;10(6):94.
Ebben WP, Fauth ML, Garceau LR, Petushek EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(12):3288–98.
Ebben WP, Simenz C, Jensen RL. Evaluation of plyometric intensity using electromyography. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):861–8.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Andrade DC, Izquierdo M. Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(10):2714–22.
Jurado-Lavanant A, Alvero-Cruz JR, Pareja-Blanco F, Melero-Romero C, Rodriguez-Rosell D, Fernandez-Garcia JC. The effects of aquatic plyometric training on repeated jumps, drop jumps and muscle damage. Int J Sports Med. 2018;39(10):764–72.
Heywood SE, Mentiplay BF, Rahmann AE, McClelland JA, Geigle PR, Bower KJ, et al. The effectiveness of aquatic plyometric training in improving strength, jumping, and sprinting: a systematic review. J Sport Rehabil. 2022;31(1):85–98.
Held NJ, Perrotta AS, Buschmann LK, Bredin SSD, Warburton DER. A systematic review of the efficacy of lower body aquatic plyometric training: the development of evidence-based recommendations for practitioners. Health Fit J Canada. 2019;12(1):17–33.
Ramirez-Campillo R, Pereira LA, Andrade D, Méndez-Rebolledo G, de la Fuente CI, Castro-Sepulveda M, et al. Tapering strategies applied to plyometric jump training: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2021;1:53–62.
Bosquet L, Montpetit J, Arvisais D, Mujika I. Effects of tapering on performance: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1358–65.
Mujika I. The influence of training characteristics and tapering on the adaptation in highly trained individuals: a review. Int J Sports Med. 1998;19(7):439–46.
Mujika I. Tapering and peaking for optimal performance. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2009.