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Table 4 Training characteristics of included studies on volume autoregulation

From: The Effect of Load and Volume Autoregulation on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Study Group Prescription Length (weeks) Frequency (days/week) Sets difference Repetitions differencea Average relative volume difference Average relative intensity difference Outcomes of interest
Galiano et al. [27] VL5 Smith machine back squat, 3 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 3 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on 50% of 1RM corresponding to 1.14 m.s−1)
Session 1–14: 50% of 1RM
7 2 Matched VL5: 156.9 ± 25.0
VL20: 480.5 ± 162.0
Significantly greater for VL20 No significant difference 1RM smith machine back squat
VL20
Held et al. [28] VL10 Power clean + back squat + bench row + deadlift + bench press, 4 sets per exercise per session, VL10 group terminated each set at VL10 threshold and TRF group performed each set to- repetition-failure, 2–3 min inter-set rest
Session 1–16: 80% of 1RM
Day 1: 40 min of supplementary training
Day 2: Resistance training, 90 min of low-intensity rowing
Day 3: 90 min of low-intensity rowing, 60 min of optional low-intensity cross-training (running and biking)
Day 4: 120 min of low-intensity cross-training (running and biking)
Day 5: Resistance training, 60 min of low-intensity cross-training (running and biking)
Day 6: 90 min of low-intensity rowing, 120 min of optional low-intensity cross-training (running and biking)
Day 7: 3 sets of 2000 m high-intensity rowing
8 2 Matched VL10: 2145 ± 285
TRF: 2825 ± 100
Significantly greater for TRF No significant difference 1RM back squat; 1RM bench press; 1RM deadlift; 1RM bench row
TRF
Pareja-Blanco et al. [29] VL15 Smith machine back squat, 2–3 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 4 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on 50% of 1RM corresponding to 1.13 m.s−1, 55% of 1RM to 1.06 m.s−1, 60% of 1RM to 0.98 m.s−1, 65% of 1RM to 0.90 m.s−1, and 70% of 1RM to 0.82 m.s−1)
Session 1–3: 50% of 1RM
Session 4–6: 55% of 1RM
Session 7–10: 60% of 1RM
Session 11–14: 65% of 1RM
Session 15–17: 70% of 1RM
Session 18: 60% of 1RM
6 3 Matched VL15: 251.2 ± 55.4
VL30: 414.6 ± 124.9
Significantly greater for VL30 No significant difference 1RM smith machine back squat
VL30
Pareja-Blanco et al. [30] VL20 Smith machine back squat, 3 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 4 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on 70% of 1RM corresponding to 0.82 m.s−1, 75% of 1RM to 0.75 m.s−1, 80% of 1RM to 0.68 m.s−1, and 85% of 1RM to 0.60 m.s−1)
Session 1–6: 70% of 1RM
Session 7–10: 75% of 1RM
Session 11–13: 80% of 1RM
Session 14–16: 85% of 1RM
8 2 Matched VL20: 185.9 ± 22.2
VL40: 310.5 ± 42.0
Significantly greater for VL40 No significant difference 1RM smith machine back squat; CSA rectus femoris; CSA vastus lateralis + vastus intermedius; CSA vastus medialis
VL40
Pareja-Blanco et al. [31] VL0 Smith machine back squat, 3 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 4 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on individualized load-velocity profile)
Session 1–5: 70% of 1RM
Session 6–10: 75% of 1RM
Session 11–14: 80% of 1RM
Session 15–16: 85% of 1RM
8 2 Matched VL0: 48.0 ± 0.0
VL10: 143.6 ± 40.2
VL20: 168.5 ± 47.4
VL40: 305.6 ± 81.7
VL40 significantly greater than VL0, VL10, and VL20; VL10 and VL20 significantly greater than VL0; No significant difference between VL10 and VL20 No significant difference 1RM smith machine back squat; CSA vastus lateralis
VL10
VL20
VL40
Pareja-Blanco et al. [32] VL0 Smith machine bench press, 3 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 4 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on individualized load-velocity profile)
Session 1–5: 70% of 1RM
Session 6–10: 75% of 1RM
Session 11–14: 80% of 1RM
Session 15–16: 85% of 1RM
8 2 Matched VL0: 48.0 ± 0.0
VL15: 136.6 ± 17.8
VL25: 191.1 ± 34.1
VL50: 316.4 ± 65.1
VL50 significantly greater than VL0, VL15, and VL25; VL15 and VL25 significantly greater than VL0; No significant difference between VL15 and VL25 No significant difference 1RM smith machine bench press; CSA pectoralis major
VL15
VL25
VL50
Rodiles-Guerrero et al. [33] VL10 Weight stack bench press, 4 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 3 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on 65% of 1RM corresponding to 0.67 m.s−1, 70% of 1RM to 0.60 m.s−1, 75% of 1RM to 0.53 m.s−1, 80% of 1RM to 0.46 m.s−1, and 85% of 1RM to 0.39 m.s−1)
Session 1–3: 65% of 1RM
Session 4–6: 70% of 1RM
Session 7–9: 75% of 1RM
Session 10–12: 80% of 1RM
Session 13–15: 85% of 1RM
5 3 Matched VL10: 211.1 ± 17.3
VL30: 398.1 ± 61.4
VL50: 444.4 ± 51.9
VL50 significantly greater than VL30 and VL10; VL30 significantly greater than VL10 No significant difference 1RM weight stack bench press
VL30
VL50
Rodríguez-Rosell et al. [34] VL10 Smith machine back squat, 3 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 4 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on 70% of 1RM corresponding to 0.84 m.s−1, 75% of 1RM to 0.75 m.s−1, 80% of 1RM to 0.68 m.s−1, and 85% of 1RM to 0.60 m.s−1)
Session 1–6: 70% of 1RM
Session 7–10: 75% of 1RM
Session 11–13: 80% of 1RM
Session 14–16: 85% of 1RM
8 2 Matched VL10: 109.6 ± 2.0
VL30: 228.0 ± 76.6
VL30 significantly greater than VL10 No significant difference 1RM smith machine back squat
VL30
Rodríguez-Rosell et al. [35] VL10 Smith machine back squat, 3 sets per session, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 4 min inter-set rest, absolute loads adjusted for each session from the first repetition of the first set to ensure velocity (± 0.03 m.s−1) matched prescribed % of 1RM (based on 55% of 1RM corresponding to 1.08 m.s−1, 60% of 1RM to 1.00 m.s−1, 65% of 1RM to 0.92 m.s−1, and 70% of 1RM to 0.84 m.s−1)
Session 1–5: 55% of 1RM
Session 6–9: 60% of 1RM
Session 10–13: 65% of 1RM
Session 14–16: 70% of 1RM
8 2 Matched VL10: 180.8 ± 29.0
VL30: 347.9 ± 62.3
VL45: 501.1 ± 106.8
VL45 significantly greater than VL30 and VL10; VL30 significantly greater than VL10 No significant difference 1RM smith machine back squat
VL30
VL45
Sánchez-Moreno et al. [36] VL25 Body mass prone-grip pullup, each group terminated each set at respective VL threshold, 3-min inter-set rest
Session 1–3: 2 sets
Session 4–8: 3 sets
Session 9–14: 4 sets
Session 15: 3 sets
Session 16: 2 sets
8 2 Matched VL25: 363.0 ± 84.6
VL50: 556.3 ± 121.9
VL50 significantly greater than VL25 No significant difference 1RM body mass prone-grip pullup
VL50
  1. aData are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. CSA cross-sectional area, m.s−1 m per second, TRF to-repetition-failure, VL percentage velocity loss, 1RM one-repetition maximum