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Table 2 Studies investigating CBF responses to static and rhythmic resistance exercise

From: The Acute Cardiorespiratory and Cerebrovascular Response to Resistance Exercise

  Type of resistance exercise and intensity Exercise performed Cohort Contraction Variables CBF metrics VM CBF response MAP response
Braz et al. [66] Type: Static
Intensity: 40% of MVC
Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 20
n: 10
Healthy males
Duration: Until task failure
Number: 1
Contralateral MCAv No Increase in MCAvmean only when PETCO2 was clamped 1 mm Hg above resting. No change during control Gradual increase up to task failure
Fernandes et al. [67] Type: Static
Intensity: 30% MVC
Unilateral hand grip Mean age: 27
n: 9
Healthy recreationally active males
Duration: 2 min
Number: 1
Bilateral ICA blood flow. Average across last 30s of contraction. No Increase in Contralateral ICA blood flow only Elevated from baseline
Friedman et al. [68] Type: Static
Intensity: 10 and 20% of MVC.
Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 30
n: 8
Healthy participants (2 females)
Duration: 4.5 min
Number: 3
Regional and hemispheric CBF via Xenon inhalation with rotating single photon tomograph No No change in hemispheric CBF. Increase in premotor and motor sensory blood flow bilaterally. Mean ~7 mm and 14 mm Hg increase during 10% and 20% MVC, respectively
Giller et al. [69] Type: Rhythmic
Intensity: volitional maximum
Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 34
n: 20
Healthy participants (7 females)
Duty cycle: 1Hz
Number: Continuous for 5 min
Bilateral MCAv – averaged over the last 2 minutes of exercise No Bilateral increase in MCAvmean–Mean increase of 13% and 10% for contralateral and ipsilateral MCAvmean respectively 24% increase
Hartwich et al. [70] Type: Rhythmic
Intensity: 10, 25 and 40% of MVC
Unilateral hand grip Mean age: 22
n: 9
Healthy recreationally active participants (1 female)
Duration: 7 min
Duty cycle: 1s contraction - 2s relaxation
Contralateral MCAv No No change across all intensities investigated No change across all intensities investigated
Hirasawa et al. [71] Type: Static
Intensity: 30% of MVC
Unilateral leg extension Mean age: 21
n: 12
Healthy Participants (8 females)
Duration: 2 min
Number: 1
Contralateral ICA blood flow and MCAv, ipsilateral ECA blood flow. Measured in 30s bins No Increased ICA flow throughout contraction. MCAvmean increased from 60s and was maintained Gradual increase and plateaus after 90s.
Imms et al. [72] Type: Static Intensity: 40% MVC Unilateral handgrip Age range: 18-38
n: 27
Healthy participants (6 females)
Duration: 2 min
Number: 1
Contralateral MCAv No Increase in MCAvmean by 17.5% in participants that did not hyperventilate. Participants that hyperventilated and reduced PETCO2 by 8–15 mm Hg showed a non-significant increase in MCAvmean of ~2 cm.s-1 Mean increase of 39 mm Hg
Ide et al. [73] Type: Rhythmic Intensity: 20% MVC Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 31
n: 9
Sex and training status not reported
Duty cycle: 1 Hz
Duration: 5 min
Bilateral MCAv No Contralateral increase in MCAvmean of 13% with a smaller 6% increase on the ipsilateral side 12 mm Hg increase
Jørgensen et al. [74] Type: Rhythmic Intensity: Not specified. Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 27
n: 12
(7 females)
Duty cycle: 30 contractions per minute
Duration: 5 min
Bilateral MCAv, sampled every 30s No 20% and 24% increase in contralateral MCAvmean during right and left hand contractions respectively. No change in ipsilateral MCAvmean observed in either conditions. 20 mm Hg increase in
Jørgensen et al. [75] Type: Static
Intensity: 30% of MVC.
Unilateral Knee extension Median age: 33
n: 11
(2 females)
Duration: 5 min
Number: 1
Bilateral MCAv—data collected each minute over exercise. Xenon clearance technique and measured during 3 minutes of exercise. No No change in MCAvmean or CBF in either hemisphere. 16 mm Hg increase during exercise
Kim et al. [76] Type: Rhythmic
Intensity: 65% of MVC
Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 25
n: 7
Healthy recreationally active males
Duty cycle: 2s contraction with 4s rest
Number: continuous for10 min
Contralateral MCAv No Maintained increase in MCAvmean at 5 and 10 minutes during exercise Sustained ~20% increase in MAP throughout exercise
Linkis et al. [77] Type: Rhythmic Intensity: Not specified for handgrip. Load of 4.8kg for foot movements Unilateral handgrip and foot movements Mean age: 26
n: 14
(6 females)
Duty cycle: 1 Hz
Duration: 15 min
Bilateral MCAv and ACAv No 19% increase in contralateral MCAvmean during hand contractions. 23% increase in contralateral ACAvmean during foot movements and 11% increase in ipsilateral MCAvmean and ACAvmean 17 mm Hg increase in MAP during hand contractions. 10 mm Hg increase during foot movements
Ogoh et al. [78] Type: Static
Intensity: 30% of MVC.
Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 22
n: 9
Healthy participants (4 females)
Duration: 2 min
Number: 1
Ipsilateral MCAv No Mean 9 cm.s-1 increase in MCAv. Static resistance exercise did not modify dynamic cerebral autoregulation Mean 16 mm Hg increase
Pott et al. [79] Type: Static Intensity: 100% of MVC Bilateral leg extension Mean age: 28
n: 10
Healthy participants (4 females)
Duration: 15s
Number: 2
Unilateral MCAv and tissue oxygenation via NIRS One bout with normal ventilation and one bout with a VM Dependent upon VM recruitment. With continued ventilation MCAvmean increased initially and then declined to baseline values. Lower MAP when ventilation was maintained.
Perry et al. [45] Type: Static
Intensity: 50% of MVC.
Bilateral leg extension Mean age: 28
n: 11
Healthy recreationally active participants (2 females)
Duration: 15s
Number: 2
MCAv, PCAv and VA blood flow One bout with normal ventilation and one bout with a VM Larger initial increase in MCAv during exercise without a VM. Both MCAv and PCAv elevated throughout exercise. No difference in VA blood flow between re with and without VM. No initial difference in MAP increase at exercise onset with and without VM. After ~10s MAP is significantly greater with concurrent VM
Vianna et al. [80] Type: Static and rhythmic Intensity: 35% of MVC Unilateral calf exercise (plantarflexion) Mean age: 24
n: 16
Healthy participants (4 females)
Duty cycle: rhythmic 0.5s contraction, 0.5s relaxation
Number: not stated
Contralateral ACAv No Similar mean increase in ACAvmean of 15% during static and rhythmic Similar increases in MAP during both types of exercise
Washio et al. [81] Type: Static
Intensity: 30% of MVC.
Unilateral handgrip Mean age of entire cohort: 21
n: 11
Healthy male participants
Duration: until exhaustion (<90% of workload)
Number: 1
Ipsilateral PCAv and VA blood flow from various sides. Averaged over the last 30s of exercise. No Mean ~3 cm.s-1 increase in PCAv. Mean ~ 38 ml.min-1 increase in VA blood flow Mean ~25 mm Hg increase
Washio et al. [82] Type: Static
Intensity: 30% of MVC.
Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 25
n: 9
Healthy male participants
Duration: 3 min
Number: 1
Contralateral MCAv and ipsilateral VA blood flow. Averaged over the last 30s of exercise. No No change in MCAv. Mean ~35 ml.min-1 increase in VA blood flow Non-significant mean increase of 28 mm Hg
Yamaguchi Et al. [83] Type: Static
Intensity: 30% of MVC.
Unilateral handgrip Mean age: 25
n: 17
Healthy male participants
Duration: 2 min
Number: 1
Contralateral PCAv No Mean 4 cm.s-1 increase in PCAv. Mean ~19 mm Hg increase
  1. MVC maximal voluntary contraction, ACAv anterior cerebral artery blood velocity, MCAv middle cerebral artery blood velocity, PCAv posterior cerebral artery blood velocity, PETCO2 partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide, MAP mean arterial blood pressure, RM repetition maximum, VA vertebral artery, ICA internal carotid artery, ECA external carotid blood flow, CBF cerebral blood flow, VM Valsalva manoeuvre