Duking P, Achtzehn S, Holmberg H-CC, Sperlich B, Dueking P, Achtzehn S, et al. Integrated framework of load monitoring by a combination of smartphone applications, wearables and point-of-care testing provides feedback that allows individual responsive adjustments to activities of daily living. Sensors. 2018;18:1–11.
Claudino JG, de Oliveira Capanema D, de Souza TV, Serrão JC, Machado Pereira AC, Nassis GP. Current approaches to the use of artificial intelligence for injury risk assessment and performance prediction in team sports: a systematic review. Sport Med Open. 2019;5(1):28.
Shield AJ, Bourne MN. Hamstring injury prevention practices in elite sport: evidence for eccentric strength vs. lumbo-pelvic training. Sport Med. 2018;48:513–24.
Ekstrand J, Waldén M, Hägglund M. Hamstring injuries have increased by 4% annually in men’s professional football, since 2001: a 13-year longitudinal analysis of the UEFA Elite Club injury study. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:731–7.
van Dyk N, Farooq A, Bahr R, Witvrouw E. Hamstring and ankle flexibility deficits are weak risk factors for hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective cohort study of 438 players including 78 injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46:2203–10.
Werner BC, Belkin NS, Kennelly S, Weiss L, Barnes RP, Potter HG, et al. Acute gastrocnemius-soleus complex injuries in national football league athletes. Orthop J Sport Med. 2017;5:1–6.
Watsford ML, Murphy AJ, McLachlan KA, Bryant AL, Cameron ML, Crossley KM, et al. A prospective study of the relationship between lower body stiffness and hamstring injury in professional Australian rules footballers. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:2058–64.
Drakos MC, Domb B, Starkey C, Callahan L, Allen AA. Injury in the National Basketball Association: a 17-year overview. Sports Health. 2010;2:284–90.
Orchard JW, Kountouris A, Sims K. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in Australian male professional cricket players. J Sport Health Sci. 2017;6:271–4.
Whitehouse T, Orr R, Fitzgerald E, Harries S, McLellan CP. The epidemiology of injuries in Australian Professional Rugby Union 2014 Super Rugby Competition. Orthop J Sport Med. 2016;4:1–10.
Sugiura Y, Sakuma K, Sakuraba K, Sato Y. Prevention of hamstring injuries in collegiate sprinters. Orthop J Sport Med. 2017;5:1–6.
Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Magnusson SP, Larsson B, Dyhre-Poulsen P. A new concept for isokinetic hamstring: quadriceps muscle strength ratio. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:231–7.
Whiteley R, Jacobsen P, Prior S, Skazalski C, Otten R, Johnson A. Correlation of isokinetic and novel hand-held dynamometry measures of knee flexion and extension strength testing. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15:444–50.
Tous-Fajardo J, Maldonado RA, Quintana JM, Pozzo M, Tesch PA. The flywheel leg-curl machine: offering eccentric overload for hamstring development. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1:293–8.
Opar DA, Piatkowski T, Williams MD, Shield AJ. A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: a reliability and retrospective injury study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43:636–40.
Buchheit M, Cholley Y, Nagel M, Poulos N. The effect of body mass on eccentric knee-flexor strength assessed with an instrumented Nordic hamstring device (Nordbord) in football players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:721–6.
Macdonald B. An investigation into the immediate effects of pelvic taping on hamstring eccentric force in an elite male sprinter – a case report. Phys Ther Sport. 2017;28:15–22.
Wik EH, Auliffe SM, Read PJ. Examination of physical characteristics and positional differences in professional soccer players in Qatar. Sports. 2018;7(1):9.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000097.
Saw AE, Main LC, Gastin PB. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:281–91.
Horsley T, Dingwall O, Sampson M. Checking reference lists to find additional studies for systematic reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(8):MR000026. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.MR000026.pub2. Accessed 10 Jan 2021.
Markovic G, Sarabon N, Boban F, Zoric I, Jelcic M, Sos K, et al. Nordic hamstring strength of highly trained youth football players and its relation to sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34:800–7.
van Dyk N, Witvrouw E, Bahr R. Interseason variability in isokinetic strength and poor correlation with Nordic hamstring eccentric strength in football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018;28:1878–87.
Vicens-Bordas J, Esteve E, Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe A, Bandholm T, Clausen MB, Opar DA, et al. Eccentric hamstring strength is associated with age and duration of previous season hamstring injury in male soccer players. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2020;15:246–53.
Ribeiro-Alvares JB, Oliveira GDS, De Lima-E-Silva FX, Baroni BM. Eccentric knee flexor strength of professional football players with and without hamstring injury in the prior season. Eur J Sport Sci. 2020;1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1743766 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 26].
Giakoumis M, Pollock N, Mias E, McAleer S, Kelly S, Brown F, et al. Eccentric hamstring strength in elite track and field athletes on the British Athletics world class performance program. Phys Ther Sport. 2020;43:217–23.
Hegyi A, Lahti J, Giacomo J-P, Gerus P, Cronin NJ, Morin J-B. Impact of hip flexion angle on unilateral and bilateral Nordic hamstring exercise torque and high-density electromyography activity. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 2019;49:584–92.
Opar DA, Williams MD, Timmins RG, Hickey J, Duhig SJ, Shield AJ. Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47:857–65.
Bourne MN, Opar DA, Williams MD, Shield AJ. Eccentric knee flexor strength and risk of hamstring injuries in rugby union. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:2663–70.
Opar DA, Williams MD, Timmins RG, Hickey J, Duhig SJ, Shield AJ. The effect of previous hamstring strain injuries on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:377–84.
Timmins RG, Bourne MN, Shield AJ, Williams MD, Lorenzen C, Opar DA. Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:1524–35.
van Dyk N, Bahr R, Burnett AF, Whiteley R, Bakken A, Mosler A, et al. A comprehensive strength testing protocol offers no clinical value in predicting risk of hamstring injury: a prospective cohort study of 413 professional football players. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:1695–702.
Chalker WJ, Shield AJ, Opar DA, Rathbone EN, Keogh JWL. Effect of acute augmented feedback on between limb asymmetries and eccentric knee flexor strength during the Nordic hamstring exercise. PeerJ. 2018;6:e4972.
Isik A, Unlu G, Gozubuyuk OB, Aslanyurek T, Bereceli C. The relationship between previous lower extremity injury, body weight and bilateral eccentric hamstring strength imbalance in young soccer players. Montenegrin J Sport Sci Med. 2018;7:23–8.
Franchi MV, Ellenberger L, Javet M, Bruhin B, Romann M, Frey WO, Spörri J. Maximal eccentric hamstrings strength in competitive alpine skiers: cross-sectional observations from youth to elite level. Front Physiol. 2019;10:88.
Thiese MS. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview. Biochem Med. 2014;24:199–210.
Wulf G, Shea CH. Principles derived from the study of simple skills do not generalize to complex skill learning. Psychon Bull Rev. 2002;9:185–211.
Magill R, Anderson D. Motor learning and control: concepts and applications. 11th ed. New York City: McGraw-Hill Higher Education; 2016.
Currell K, Jeukendrup AE. Validity, reliability and sensitivity of measures of sporting performance. Sport Med. 2008;38:297–316.
Claudino JG, Mezêncio B, Soncin R, Ferreira JC, Valadão PF, Takao PP, et al. Development of an individualized familiarization method for vertical jumps. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2013;19:359–62.
Bonnette S, Dicesare CA, Kiefer AW, Riley MA, Foss KDB, Thomas S, et al. A technical report on the development of a real-time visual biofeedback system to optimize motor learning and movement deficit correction. J Sport Sci Med. 2020;19:84–94.
Myer GD, Stroube BW, Dicesare CA, Brent JL, Ford KR, Heidt RS, et al. Augmented feedback supports skill transfer and reduces high-risk injury landing mechanics: a double-blind, randomized controlled laboratory study. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:669–77.
Croisier JL, Ganteaume S, Binet J, Genty M, Ferret JM. Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:1469–75.
van Dyk N, Bahr R, Whiteley R, Tol JL, Kumar BD, Hamilton B, Farooq A, Witvrouw E. Hamstring and quadriceps isokinetic strength deficits are weak risk factors for hamstring strain injuries: a 4-year cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44:1789–95.
Jakobi JM, Chilibeck PD. Bilateral and unilateral contractions: possible differences in maximal voluntary force. Can J Appl Physiol. 2001;26:12–33.
Zemski AJ, Slater GJ, Broad EM. Body composition characteristics of elite Australian rugby union athletes according to playing position and ethnicity. J Sports Sci. 2015;33:970–8.
Bilsborough JC, Greenway KG, Opar DA, Livingstone SG, Cordy JT, Bird SR, et al. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian Football Players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29:826–34.
Grant D, David P, Sue H. Applied physiology and game analysis of Rugby Union. Sport Med. 2003;33:973–91.
Orchard JW, Seward H, Orchard JJ. Results of 2 decades of injury surveillance and public release of data in the Australian Football League. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:734–41.
Green B, Bourne MN, van Dyk N, Pizzari T. Recalibrating the risk of hamstring strain injury (HSI): a 2020 systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for index and recurrent hamstring strain injury in sport. Br J Sports Med. 2020;54:1081–8.
Kenneally-Dabrowski CJB, Brown NAT, Lai AKM, Perriman D, Spratford W, Serpell BG. Late swing or early stance? A narrative review of hamstring injury mechanisms during high-speed running. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2019;29:1083–91.
Chumanov ES, Schache AG, Heiderscheit BC, Thelen DG. Hamstrings are most susceptible to injury during the late swing phase of sprinting. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(2):90.
Schache AG, Dorn TW, Blanch PD, Brown NAT, Pandy MG. Mechanics of the human hamstring muscles during sprinting. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:647–58.
Schache AG, Dorn TW, Wrigley TV, Brown NATT, Pandy MG. Stretch and activation of the human biarticular hamstrings across a range of running speeds. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:2813–28.
Schimitt B, Tyler T, McHugh M. Hamstring injury rehabilitation and prevention of reinjury using lengthened state eccentric training: a new concept. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;7:333–41.
Novacheck TF. The biomechanics of running. Gait Posture. 1998;7:77–95.
Mann RA, Hagy J. Biomechanics of walking, running, and sprinting. Am J Sports Med. 1980;8:345–50.
Schache AG, Dorn TW, Williams GP, Brown NAT, Pandy MG. Lower-limb muscular strategies for increasing running speed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44:813–24.
Orchard JW. Hamstrings are most susceptible to injury during the early stance phase of sprinting. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:88–9.
Kyröläinen H, Avela J, Komi PV. Changes in muscle activity with increasing running speed. J Sports Sci. 2005;23:1101–9.
Askling C, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Type of acute hamstring strain affects flexibility, strength, and time to return to pre-injury level. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:40–4.
Wiesinger H-P, Gressenbauer C, Kosters A, Scharinger M, Muller E. Device and method matter: a critical evaluation of eccentric hamstring muscle strength assessments. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020;30:217–26.
Hegyi A, Gonçalves BAM, Finni T, Cronin NJ. Individual region- and muscle-specific hamstring activity at different running speeds. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019;51:2274–85.
Hegyi A, Péter A, Finni T, Cronin NJ. Region-dependent hamstrings activity in Nordic hamstring exercise and stiff-leg deadlift defined with high-density electromyography. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2018;28:992–1000.
Opar DA, Williams MD, Shield AJ. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sport Med. 2012;42:209–26.
Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Sinclair PJ, Pappas E, Sanders RH. Effect of injury prevention programs that include the Nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injury rates in soccer players: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sport Med. 2017;47:907–16.
Petersen J, Thorborg K, Nielsen MB, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Hölmich P. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men’s soccer: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:2296–303.
Van Dyk N, Behan FP, Whiteley R. Including the Nordic hamstring exercise in injury prevention programmes halves the rate of hamstring injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 8459 athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53:1362–70.
Van Der Horst N, Smits DW, Petersen J, Goedhart EA, Backx FJG. The preventive effect of the nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:1316–23.
Freckleton G, Pizzari T. Risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury in sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:351–8.
Bittencourt NFN, Meeuwisse WH, Mendonça LD, Nettel-Aguirre A, Ocarino JM, Fonseca ST. Complex systems approach for sports injuries: moving from risk factor identification to injury pattern recognition - narrative review and new concept. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:1309–14.
Bourne MN, Timmins RG, Opar DA, Pizzari T, Ruddy JD, Sims C, et al. An evidence-based framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring injury. Sport Med. 2018;48:251–67.
Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ. Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration. J Appl Biomech. 2005;21:31–43.
Kawamori N, Nosaka K, Newton RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:568–73.
Morin JB, Gimenez P, Edouard P, Arnal P, Jiménez-Reyes P, Samozino P, et al. Sprint acceleration mechanics: the major role of hamstrings in horizontal force production. Front Physiol. 2015;6:1–14.
Ishøi L, Aagaard P, Nielsen MF, Thornton KB, Krommes KK, Hölmich P, Thorborg K. The influence of hamstring muscle peak torque and rate of torque development for sprinting performance in football players: a cross-sectional study. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14:665–73.
Romero-Franco N, Jiménez-Reyes P, Castaño-Zambudio A, Capelo-Ramírez F, Rodríguez-Juan JJ, González-Hernández J, Toscano-Bendala FJ, Cuadrado-Peñafiel V, Balsalobre-Fernández C. Sprint performance and mechanical outputs computed with an iPhone app: comparison with existing reference methods. Eur J Sport Sci. 2017;17:386–92.
Mendiguchia J, Edouard P, Samozino P, Brughelli M, Cross M, Ross A, Gill N, Morin JB. Field monitoring of sprinting power-force-velocity profile before, during and after hamstring injury: two case reports. J Sports Sci. 2016;34:535–41.
Nagahara R, Mizutani M, Matsuo A, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Association of sprint performance with ground reaction forces during acceleration and maximal speed phases in a single sprint. J Appl Biomech. 2018;34:104–10.
Wdowski MM, Gittoes MJR. First-stance phase force contributions to acceleration sprint performance in semi-professional soccer players. Eur J Sport Sci. 2020;20:366–74.
Loturco I, DʼAngelo RA, Fernandes V, et al. Relationship between sprint ability and loaded/unloaded jump tests in elite sprinters. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(3):758–64.
McFarland I, Dawes JJ, Elder C, Lockie R. Relationship of two vertical jumping tests to sprint and change of direction speed among male and female collegiate soccer players. Sports. 2016;4:11.
Asadi A. Relationship between jumping ability, agility and sprint performance of elite young basketball players: a field-test approach. Brazilian J Kinanthropometry Hum Perform. 2016;18:177–86.
Claudino JG, Cronin J, Mezêncio B, McMaster DT, McGuigan M, Tricoli V, et al. The countermovement jump to monitor neuromuscular status: a meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20:397–402.
Claudino JG, Cronin JB, Amadio AC, Serrão JC. How can the training load be adjusted individually in athletes with an applied statistical approach? J Athl Enhanc. 2016;5:6.