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Table 3 Characteristics of athletes according to the different serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations (four subgroups)

From: Influence of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Insufficiency on Maximal Aerobic Power in Elite Indoor Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

  Serum 25- OH vitamin D concentrations
< 20 ng/mL ≥ 20– < 30 ng/mL ≥ 30– < 50 ng/mL ≥ 50 ng/mL
(n = 10) (n = 24) (n = 61) (n = 17)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Age (years) 26.3 ± 7 27.8 ± 5.4 25.5 ± 5.1 25.6 ± 3.9
Height (cm) 192 ± 7 189 ± 8.4 189 ± 7.5 190 ± 6
Weight (kg) 93.8 ± 9.8 93.5 ± 11.8 91.5 ± 10.2 96.5 ± 11.1
BMI (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 1.36 26 ± 1.56 25.2 ± 1.72 26.5 ± 2.33
PTH (ng/mL) 48.8 ± 10.2 37.3 ± 17 34.1 ± 19 24.3 ± 12.8 a
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.36 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.39 ± 0.08 2.4 ± 0.07
Serum 25-OH vitamin D (ng/mL) 14.6 ± 3.9 25.8 ± 2.7a 38.6 ± 5.2a/b 56.5 ± 5.2a/b/c
Maximal workload (W) 295 ± 48 340 ± 74 351 ± 58a 406 ± 30a/b
Maximal aerobic power (W/kg) 3.18 ± 0.64 3.59 ± 0.71 3.85 ± 0.46a 4.24 ± 0.36a/b
Maximum heart rate (bpm) 175 ± 15 175 ± 17 176 ± 10 177 ± 10
Maximum SBP (mmHg) 183 ± 19 187 ± 19 193 ± 19.5 195 ± 26
Maximum DBP (mmHg) 86.7 ± 5.6 86.8 ± 7.4 86.8 ± 9.7 88.8 ± 11
Resting heart rate (bpm) 59.2 ± 10 58.2 ± 8 58.2 ± 10 59.3 ± 13.9
Resting SBP (mmHg) 120 ± 12 119 ± 12 119 ± 7.4 126 ± 9
Resting DBP (mmHg) 81.6 ± 5 79.4 ± 10.3 74.9 ± 6.2a 74.1 ± 8.9a/b
SEP (points) 73.2 ± 23.8 75.5 ± 20.1 78.6 ± 15 80.6 ±  28.5
  1. See Additional file 1 for specific p values. Bold text signifies significant differences. Values are given as means ± standard deviation (SD) and as median with interquartile ranges (IQR)
  2. BMI = body mass index; PTH = parathyroid hormone; SE p = sun exposure points (measured over the two weeks prior to examination; maximum 112 points)
  3. aSignificant difference vs. concentrations of < 20 ng/mL (p < 0.05);
  4. bSignificant difference vs. concentrations of ≥ 20- < 30 ng/mL (p < 0.05);
  5. cSignificant difference vs. concentrations of ≥ 30- < 50 ng/mL (p < 0.05)