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Table 4 Changes of haematological variables related to prolonged and multiday events in specific conditions

From: Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors Subjects Interventions [Hb] Ret% OFFs Hct PV
Prolonged exercise in hot conditions        
Rama et al. [33] Runners (n = 19) The race was conducted over five stages (5 d) totalling a distance of 230 km. The daily maximum temperature ranged between 32 and 40 °C. Pre-stage blood samples were collected within the hour prior to the start of each running stage ↓ − 7% (5 d) ↓ − 8% (5 d) ↑ + 18% (5 d)
Zappe et al. [34] Cyclists (n = 9) Nine subjects were assigned to one of two experimental treatments: euhydrated (E) and hypohydrated (H). Following 20 min of a seated test in a warm environment, each subject cycled in a semi-reclining posture for 60 min at three successive intensities, representing 22% (T1), 37% (T2) and 53% (T3) of the VO2max ↑/↑ (T3) ↑/↑ (T3) ↓ − 11%
↓ − 11% (T3)
Gaebelein and Senay [35] Recreational athletes (n = 4) Four males were studied during cycle ergometer exercise and stair stepping in a hot, wet environment (32 °C) after exertion. Venous blood samples were obtained 24 h before each exercise and before and at l0 min intervals during each exercise ↑ (10 min) ↑ (10 min) ↓ (10 min)
Prolonged exercise in hypoxic conditions        
Garvican-Lewis et al. [36] Cyclists (n = 30) Four teams participating in the 2013 Tour of Qinghai Lake agreed to participate in the study. Haematological variables of sea-level (SL) and altitude (ALT) cyclists were measured during a 14-d cycling race, held at 1146–4120 m, as well as during a simulated tour near sea level (SIM) ↓ − 4% (10 d) ↑ + 28% ↓ − 7% (6 d) ↑ + 15% (6 d)
↓ − 8% ↑ + 24% (10 d) ↓ − 6% ↑ + 17%
↓ − 7% (14 d) ↓ − 18% ↓ − 7% (14 d) ↑ + 16% (14 d)
↓ − 35% (14 d)
Schumacher et al. [37] Cyclists (n = 25) Fourteen sea-level (SL) and eleven altitude-native (ALT), highly trained athletes participated in a 14-d cycling stage race taking place at an average altitude of 2496 m above sea level (min. 1014 m, max. 4120 m). Race distances ranged between 96 and 227 km d−1. Blood samples were taken on d − 1, + 3, + 6, + 10, + 14 (SL) and − 1, + 9, + 15 (ALT) ↓ (14 d) ↑ (14 d) ↓ (14 d) ↑ (14 d)
  1. Numbers represent the relative changes during the most significant measurement: haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocytes percentage (Ret%), OFF-Score (OFFS), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV). Values in italics correspond to absolute variations