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Table 2 Changes of haematological variables related to various doping practices

From: Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors Subjects Interventions [Hb] Ret% OFFs Hct PV
Blood transfusion doping        
Damsgaard et al. [20] Recreational athletes (n = 10) Haematological parameters were measured in 10 healthy male subjects at baseline and after the withdrawal of 20% (1.3 L) of the subjects’ blood volume on d 0, + 1, + 3, + 7, + 14, + 21 and + 28 (W) and after reinfusion of 0.8 L of packed RBCs on d 0, + 1, + 3, + 7, + 14 and + 21 (R) ↓ − 14% (W + 1) ↑ + 45% (W + 1) ↓ − 38% (W + 1) ↓ − 15% (W + 1)
↑ + 4% (R + 1) ↓ − 38% (R + 7) ↑ + 10% (R + 1) ↑ + 4% (R + 1)
Lamberti et al. [21] Recreational athletes (n = 24) Blood samples were taken from the subjects at baseline and after withdrawal and reinfusion of 450 mL of refrigerated or cryopreserved blood. Measurements were taken at baseline (D-40), withdrawal (D-25), reinfusion (D-0) and D + 3, D + 6 and D + 15 ↓ − 6% (− 25 d) ↑ + 57% (− 25 d) ↓ − 25% (− 25 d) ↓ − 6% (− 25 d)
↑ + 6% (3 d) ↓ − 23% (6 d) ↑ + 10% (3 d) ↑ + 6% (3 d)
Bejder et al. [22] Cyclists (n = 9) Nine highly trained male subjects donated two 450 mL blood bags each (BT) or were sham phlebotomised (PLA). Four weeks later, a 650-kcal time trial (n = 7) was performed 3 d before and 2 h after receiving either ~ 50% (135 mL) of the RBC or a sham transfusion ↑ + 3% (2 h) = (NS) ↑ + 3% (2 h)
Carbon monoxide exposure        
Schmidt et al. [23] Recreational athletes (n = 22) Subjects inhaled a pre-determined CO bolus five times per day, starting at 8 a.m. and then every 4 h until midnight. Subjects were allowed to sleep from midnight to 8 a.m. without taking a CO bolus ↑ + 4% (2 weeks) ↑ + 16% (1 weeks) = (NS) ↑ + 4% (2 weeks) = (NS)
Desmopressin use        
Sanchis-Gomar et al. [24] Recreational athletes (n = 8) Venous blood samples were obtained from eight physically active males on two occasions. On the first occasion, the subjects ingested 1.5 L of mineral water and 4.3 μg·kg−1 of desmopressin (T1). On the second occasion, the subjects ingested 1.5 L of mineral water (T2) ↓ − 9% (T1) = (NS) ↓ − 10% (T1) ↓ − 8% (T1)
Xenon use        
Dias et al. [25] Recreational athletes (n = 22) Three independent experimental protocols were completed to achieve the individual aims of this study. To determine the chronic effects, eight subjects breathed FiXe 70% for 2 min on 7 consecutive days ↓ − 7% (15 d) = (NS) ↓ − 8% (15 d) ↑ + 14% (15 d)
  1. Numbers represent the relative changes during the most significant measurement: haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocytes percentage (Ret%), OFF-Score (OFFS), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV). Values in italics correspond to absolute variations