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Table 1 The effects of various training methods on the determinants of maximal muscular power, sustained power production during brief maximal efforts, and rates of recovery

From: Maximal muscular power: lessons from sprint cycling

Determinants Maximum force Rate of force development Neuromuscular coordination Activation-relaxation kinetics Maximum shortening velocity Fatigue resistance Muscle oxidative capacity
Relevant mechanisms - Muscle CSA
- MyHC IIa/x area ratio
- MyHC IIa/x composition (positive effect)
- Neural drive
- Muscle architecture
- Maximum force
- Neural drive
- MyHC IIa/x area ratio
- MyHC IIa/x composition (positive effect)
- MTU stiffness
- Magnitude of muscle activation
-Timing of muscle activation and relaxation
- MyHC IIa/x composition (positive effect)
-Sarcoplasmic reticulum structure and function
- MyHC IIa/x composition (positive effect)
- Muscle architecture
- MyHC IIa/x composition (negative effect)
-Anaerobic substrate availability and enzyme activity
-Metabolite buffering capacity
-Pain tolerance
- Muscle CSA (negative effect)
- MyHC IIa/x composition (negative effect)
- Mitochondrial and capillary density
-Oxidative enzyme activity
Training methods for maximal power
Maximum strength training ↑↑↑ ↑↑ - ↓ (?)
Explosive strength training ↑↑ ↑↑↑ - - (?) - (?) -
Eccentric strength training ↑↑↑ ↑↑↑ (?) - ↑ (?) ↑ (?) ↓ (?) ↓ (?)
Isokinetic strength and power training ↑↑ (?) ↑↑↑ (?) ↑↑↑ (?) - - ↑↑
Specific cycling strength and power training (track or ergometer) ↑↑ ↑↑↑ ↑↑↑ - (?) - (?)
Training methods for sustained power and rates of recovery
Sprint interval ‘Speed-Endurance’ training (track or ergometer) - ↑↑ - - ↑↑
Long interval training (ergometer or road) ↓↓ ↓↓ - ↓↓ ↓↓ ↑↑ ↑↑↑
Endurance training (ergometer or road) ↓↓ ↓↓ - ↓↓ ↓↓ ↑↑↑
Repeated sprint training in hypoxia - ↓ (?) - ↓ (?) ↓ (?) ↑↑ ↑↑↑
Single legged interval training - ↓ (?) - ↓ (?) ↓ (?) ↑↑ ↑↑↑
  1. Abbreviations: CSA cross-sectional area, MTU muscle-tendon unit, MyHC myosin heavy chain isoform. Training effect key: ↑↑↑, highly positive; ↑↑, moderately positive; ↑, possibly positive effect; ↓↓↓, highly negative; ↓↓, moderately negative; ↓, possibly negative; -, neither positive nor negative; (?), effect uncertain