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Table 2 Body composition of participants based on age (A), exercise volume (B), protein intake (C), and biological sex (D)

From: Sarcopenic Characteristics of Active Older Adults: a Cross-Sectional Exploration

  BM (kg) FFM (kg) FM (%) Arm lean mass (kg) Leg lean mass (kg) BMD ALM/ht2
A.
Middle
n = 26
74.7 (68.5 to 81.0) 55.3 (51.3 to 59.2) 27.0 (23.5 to 30.6) 5.6 (5.0 to 6.3) 18.0 (16.4 to 19.7) 1.3 (1.2 to 1.3) 7.8 (7.3 to 8.4)
Older
n = 27
74.5 (69.2 to 80.3) 51.9 (47.3 to 56.6) 30.0 (26.2 to 34.0) 5.7 (5.1 to 6.4) 17.7 (16.1 to 19.2) 1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) 7.6 (7.0 to 8.1)
p value .936 .573 .250 .822 .459 .040 .451
B.
Low
n = 15
78.0 (70.0 to 86.1) 52.0 (45.4 to 58.3) 35.6 (31.2 to 40.0) 5.5 (4.5 to 6.5) 16.9 (14.7 to 19.1) 1.1 (1.1 to 1.3) 7.7 (6.9 to 8.6)
Moderate
n = 24
75.8 (70.0 to 82.0) 56.4 (52.0 to 60.7) 25.1 (22.3 to 30.0) 5.8 (5.2 to 6.5) 18.6 (16.7 to 20.3) 1.3 (1.2 to 1.3) 7.8 (7.3 to 8.4)
High
n = 14
69.5 (60.3 to 79.0) 51.0 (44.7 to 56.7) 26.1 (21.8 to 31.0) 5.4 (4.4 to 6.3) 16.7 (14.2 to 19.1) 1.2 (1.1 to 1.3) 7.5 (6.7 to 8.3)
p value .385 .405 .077 .344 .685 .916 .198
C.
Low
n = 7
86.1 (70.1 to 102.1) 57.1 (46.8 to 67.6) 35.2 (27.8 to 39.0) 6.7 (4.4 to 9.0) 19.7 (15.5 to 24.0) 1.2 (1.2 to 1.3) 8.6 (7.3 to 10.0)
Moderate
n = 13
80.6 (72.6 to 92.0) 57.1 (50.7 to 63.5) 31.6 (25.9 to 37.3) 5.4 (4.6 to 6.3) 17.6 (14.6 to 20.6) 1.3 (1.1 to 1.4) 7.6 (6.6 to 8.6)
High
n = 33
70.0a (65.8 to 71.0) 51.8 (47.9 to 55.8) 25.3a (22.2 to 28.3) 5.4 (4.8 to 6.0) 17.1 (15.7 to 18.4) 1.2 (1.1 to 1.3) 7.6 (7.1 to 8.0)
p value .025 .933 .005 .063 .263 .093 .143
D.
Males
n = 36
80.2 (75.5 to 85.0) 59.2 (56.3 to 62.0) 25.8 (23.1 to 28.4) 6.5 (6.2 to 6.9) 19.8 (19.7 to 20.8) 1.3 (1.2 to 1.3) 8.4 (8.0 to 8.7)
Females
n = 17
64.1 (55.0 to 62.0) 42.4 (39.5 to 45.3) 34.1 (29.2 to 38.5) 3.8 (3.5 to 4.1) 13.4 (12.6 to 14.2) 1.1 (1.0 to 1.1) 6.5 (6.1 to 7.0)
p value < .001 < .001 < .001 < .001 < .001 < .001 < .001
  1. Mean (95% CI). (A) Age: middle-age (50–59 years) and older (≥ 60 years). (B) Exercise volume: low (≥ 90–149 min), moderate (≥150–299 min), high (≥ 300 min). (C) Protein intake: low (≤ 0.8 g/kg BM/day), moderate (≥ 0.8–1.19 g/kg BM/ day), high (≥ 1.2 g/kg BM/day). (D) Males and females. Between group differences: a p < .05 vs low. Abbreviations: ALM appendicular muscle mass, BM body mass, FFM fat-free mass, FM fat mass, BMD bone mineral density