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Table 4 Characteristics of included studies

From: Posterior-Chain Resistance Training Compared to General Exercise and Walking Programmes for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain in the General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Study Number of participants Age Sex(es) Structure of PCRT session Number of sessions/week Sets × reps/rest of each exercise Type of loading Exercises included in PCRT intervention
6–8 weeks
 Aasa et al. 2015 [30] 70 25–60 years M + F Small group (5 people) 1–2×/week 5 + × 1–10/5 min (based on total load) BB Deadlift
 Atalay et al. 2017 [36] 20 25 years (0.8 SEM) M Circuit-based, changing after each set 3×/week 2 × 6–12 reps or 5 s holds/30 min between circuits BW, DB Bridge, weighted neck flexion/extension, lateral side raise, upright row, chest-supported DB row, abdominal crunch, 4-point kneeling w/ leg extension, supine back extension
 Cai et al. 2015 [31]a 84 21–45 years M + F In-clinic and home exercises Clinic: 2×/week
Home: 5×/week
Clinic: 3 × 10/2 min
Home: 3 × 10/2 min
BW, DB, Machine Supervised: Machine-based hip abduction, hip extension, leg press
Home Exercise: Single-leg squat, wall sit
 Suh et al. 2019 [35]a 48 54.81 years (± 14.66) M + F Home-based 5×/week 5 × 30 s holds (rest not mentioned) BW, DB, varying level of instability Bridge, abdominal crunch, dead bug, side plank, prone superman, bird dog, plank
12–16 weeks
 Cortell-Tormo et al. 2018 [14] 19 20–55 years F Small group (3–4 people), circuit-based 2×/week Stage 1: 1–2 × 20/0 s
Stage 2: 2–3 × 15/30 s
Stage 3: 3 × 12/30 s
BW, DB, Cable; based on RPE of each participant Isometric: 4-pt kneeling/lying, lying w/ leg movement, sitting, standing
Movements: Squat, lunge, SL deadlift, stand row, stand push, seated row, pull squat, abdominal crunch, back extension, side plank, bridge
 Hurley et al. 2015 [32] 246 18–65 years M + F Group-based circuit training 1×/week 1× max reps in 60 s at 70% RPE (Borg) BW, DB, progression to unilateral Bridge (SL or DL), squats (SL or DL), lateral stepping, push-ups, side-lying hip abduction, prone leg extension, abdominal crunch, lateral raises, diagonal trunk curl, high-knees on the spot
 Jackson et al. 2011 [33]a
[Middle-aged]
45 52 years
(± 2.7)
M Gym-based, unsupervised 4×/week 3–6 × 10–12/1–2 min
“Core” = 30 reps
BW, DB, BB, Cable Leg press, leg extension, leg curl, bench press, incline bench press, lat pulldown, low cable row, shoulder press, arm curl, triceps pushdown, ab crunches, Swiss ball crunch, prone superman
 Jackson et al. 2011 [33]a
[Old-aged]
45 63 years
(± 3.1)
M Gym-based, unsupervised 4×/week 3–6 × 10–12/1–2 min
“Core” = 30 reps
Progressive RT
BW, DB, BB, Cable Leg press, leg extension, leg curl, bench press, incline bench press, lat pulldown, low cable row, shoulder press, arm curl, triceps pushdown, ab crunches, Swiss ball crunch, prone superman
 Kell et al. 2009 [34] 27 40.1 years
(± 8.7)
M + F Gym-based, unsupervised 4×/week 2–3 × 8–15/1–3 min
“Core” = 30 reps
Progressive RT
BW, DB, BB, Cable Leg press, leg extension, leg curl, bench press, incline bench press, lat pulldown, low cable row, shoulder press, arm curl, triceps pushdown, ab crunches, swiss ball crunch, prone superman
  1. PCRT Posterior Chain Resistance Training; SEM standard error mean; M male; F female; BB barbell; BW bodyweight; DB dumbbell; 10RM 10 repetition max; RPE rating of perceived exertion; RT resistance training
  2. aParticipants were noted to be recreationally active