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Table 2 Muscle activity during the separate phases of paddling in surfing

From: The Surfer’s Shoulder: A Systematic Review of Current Literature and Potential Pathophysiological Explanations of Chronic Shoulder Complaints in Wave Surfers

Propulsive phase Recovery phase
Pull phase Push phase
Thorax extension
- Erector spinae
Shoulder flexion
- Pectoralis major
- Triceps brachii
Glenohumeral extension 90° flexion to 10° extension
- Latissimus dorsi
- Mid trapezius
Internal rotation
- Subscapularis
Humeral elevation
- Deltoid
- Supraspinatus
Humeral head stabilisation prevention of superior translation
- Rotator cuff