|Nessler et al. 2015 ||Cohort study||Wetsuit vs non-wetsuit effect on muscle activation in paddling; EMG/8 camera Vicon analysis||12||
-Mid deltoid, infraspinatus and upper trapezius peaks at recovery phase|
-Peak triceps brachii, erector spinae and LD during propulsion phase
-Mid trapezius activity peak at the end of propulsion.
|Nessler et al. 2019 ||Cohort study||LD, upper + mid trapezius, post + mid deltoid surface EMG changes at different water velocities||12||
-Mid deltoid, post deltoid and trapezius most active at the start of paddle motion|
-LD is most active in mid-stroke.
-Deltoid: arm placement and return
-Trapezius: scapular rotation
|Carter et al. 2015 ||Cohort and literature study||Shoulder elevation in relation to paddle activitiesa||54||
Negative correlation between hours of board paddling and shoulder elevation scores.|
Paddle movement (no original data):
-Starts in a forward flexed position with scapula protraction, glenohumeral abduction and flexion to catch the water.
-Glenohumeral IR and extension follows while the thorax extends.
Consistent cycling through these positions predisposes to impingement.
-IR is a dominant movement, propelling the surfer, mainly by pectoralis major, LD and subscapularis.
-Decreased ER may result as result of subsequent tightness, limiting scapular posterior tilt.
|Posture and ROM|
|Furness et al. 2014 ||Retrospective cohort study||Retrospective analysis of chronic injuries in surfers||1348||
-Prolonged paddling is leading cause of chronic shoulder injuries.|
-Shortening of the muscle units of the shoulder muscles may result in muscular imbalance.
|McBride and Fisher 2012 ||Cross-sectional study||Identification of shoulder complaints in professional surfers||15||
Clinical findings in 30 shoulders:|
-8/30 had winging of the scapula during shoulder abduction.
-2/30 had active signs of external impingement
-3/30 had grade I anterior instability
|Lassalle et al. 2012 ||Cohort study||Physical examination of surfers with and without shoulder complaints||25||
76% of surfers had shoulder pain|
In the painful group:
-Impingement in 53–63%
-ER decreased compared to the non-painful group
|Shoulder strength in surfing|
|Furness et al. 2018 ||Cohort study||Internal to external strength ratio examined in professional surfers and reliability of testing.||21||
More strength in IR muscles compared to ER muscles|
Comparable to other sports with repetitive overhead arm movements
|Madeira et al. 2019 ||Cohort study||Compares IR in surfers to reference population||5||In surfers: higher values for IR and smaller percentage for ER/IR ratio compared to reference population|