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Table 3 Number of players divided into quartiles in each sport

From: Relative Age Effects in Male Japanese Professional Athletes: a 25-Year Historical Analysis

  Year Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Total χ2 Phi
Soccer 1993 129 (36.5%) 108 (30.6%) 57 (16.1%) 59 (16.7%) 353   
2001 277 233 153 109 772 9.50* 0.111
[Expected] 282 236 125 129 772   
2010 331 273 212 139 955 25.64** 0.164
[Expected] 349 292 155 159 955   
2018 467 422 294 227 1410 24.11** 0.131
[Expected] 515 431 228 236 1410   
Baseball 1993 279 (34.7%) 262 (32.6%) 142 (17.7%) 120 (14.9%) 803   
2001 264 224 141 102 731 2.92 0.063
[Expected] 254 238 129 110 731   
2010 240 212 175 104 731 20.34** 0.167
[Expected] 254 238 129 110 731   
2018 258 236 181 156 831 23.20** 0.167
[Expected] 288 271 147 125 831   
Basketball 2010 48 (30.4%) 44 (27.8%) 35 (22.2%) 31 (19.6%) 158   
2018 137 124 84 83 428 1.87 0.066
[Expected] 130 119 95 84 428   
Volleyball 2010 39 (29.3%) 43 (32.3%) 28 (21.1%) 23 (17.3%)    
2018 141 123 130 106 500 20.24** 0.201
[Expected] 147 162 105 86 500   
  1. The number in the second row shows the expected number of players calculated from the number of players in 1993 for soccer and baseball, and in 2010 for basketball and volleyball. χ2 chi-squared value
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. **p < 0.001
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