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Table 6 Studies identifying foot and ankle positioning as contributory to KJLs

From: Biomechanical Determinants of Knee Joint Loads Associated with Increased Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading During Cutting: A Systematic Review and Technical Framework

Study Participants Cuts used Findings
Cortes et al., 2012 [47] 20 F soccer Division 1 athletes UP 45° task RF landing = ↓ KADM in 45° cut (F (1,18) = 11.882; p = 0.003)
David et al., 2017 [56] 50 participants (23 M, 27 F) 90° PP cutting task with 3 m approach Habitual RF landing exhibited ↑ pKAM 11–19% of stance phase (p = 0.008)
Donnelly et al., 2017 [49] 19 elite F hockey players 45° UP cutting task Habitual RF possess sig ↑ pKAM to FF (1.4 ± 0.5 Nm kg−1 vs. 0.5 ± 0.4 Nm kg−1; p = 0.001)
Habitual FF = sig ↓ power absorption at knee (− 32.0 ± 7.5 W kg−1 vs −68.8 ± 18.5 W kg−1; p = < 0.001) and sig ↑ at ankle (− 15.3 ± 4.4 vs. − 5.8 ± 1.8 W kg−1; p = < 0.001)
Jones et al., 2015 [36] 26 elite and sub-elite F soccer players 10 m approach 3 m exit of PP 90° cut “High-risk” group (exhibiting KAMs + 0.5 SD above the mean) had a substantially greater inward foot rotation compared to the low-risk cohort (0.5 SD below the mean) (14.7 ± 0.9° vs. 5.5 ± 1.2° respectively).
Kristianslund et al., 2014 [61] 123 F handball players Handball-specific protocol—self-selected PP cut when receiving a ball and cutting around a static defender mean 67° 1SD (16°) increase in plantarflexion/toe landing corresponds to approximately a 13% decrease in KAM
Sigward et al., 2007 [53] 61 F soccer players 45° PP cutting task ↑ KAM group exhibit sig ↑ foot progression angle (p = 0.04, ES = 0.55).
Foot progression angle sig correlated to pKAM (R = 0.39, p = < 0.001)
  1. FF forefoot, RF rearfoot, KAM knee abduction moment, KADM internal knee adduction moment, Nm kg−1 Newton metres per second, W kg−1 Watts per kilogramme per second, IC initial contact, PP pre-planned, UP unplanned, M male, F female, ß beta value, ↑ increased, ↓ decreased, R2 coefficient of determination, sig significantly