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Table 4 Studies implicating biomechanical variables about the knee in generating large KJLs

From: Biomechanical Determinants of Knee Joint Loads Associated with Increased Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading During Cutting: A Systematic Review and Technical Framework

Study Participants Cuts used Findings
Havens et al., 2015 [34] 25 (12 F, 13 M) healthy soccer players 45° and 90° PP cutting tasks with 7.5 m approach and 7.5 exit KEM sig determinant of KAM (R2 change 0.17, p = 0.041)
Jones et al., 2015 [36] 26 elite and sub-elite F soccer players 10 m approach 3 m exit of PP 90° cut Initial KAA sig predictor of KAM (R = − .67, p = 0.001; R2 = 45%)
Kristianslund et al., 2014 [61] 123 F handball players Handball-specific protocol—self-selected PP cut when receiving a ball and cutting around a static defender mean 67° KAA sig predictor of pKAM (ß = 0.704, p = <0.001), moment arm (ß = 0.00218, p = <0.001) and GRF at time of pKAM (ß = 0.212, p = .001)
McBurnie et al., 2019 [60] 34 elite and sub-elite M soccer players 70–90° PP cutting task with a 10 m approach and 3 m exit Peak KFM and KRM sig determinants of KAM (R = 0.549 and − 0.488; p = 0.002 and 0.003 respectively)
McLean et al., 2005 [51] 20 NCAA athletes (10 M, 10 F) 45° PP cutting task KAA predictive of KAM (R2 = 0.21—males, R2 = 0.35—females; p = 0.05)
Sigward et al., 2015 [37] 45 (20 F, 25 M) healthy soccer players 45 and 110° UP cutting tasks with 7 m approach vGRF, lGRF, Hip INT ROT and KAA = R2 62.9% in 45° cuts (F4,40 = 19.654, p < 0.001) in KAMs
pGRF, Hip INT ROT and KAA (R2 = 41.5(F3,41 = 11.413, p < 0.001) in KAMs
Weir et al., 2019 [54] 30 F hockey players (15 junior, 15 elite) UP 45° cutting task KFA at IC sig predictor of KAM (ß = − 0.019, p = 0.001)
  1. INT ROT internal rotation, KAA knee abduction angle, KAM knee abduction moment, pKAM peak knee abduction moment, KFA knee flexion angle, KEM knee extension moment, KFM knee flexion moment (external), KRM knee rotation moment, IC initial contact, vGRF vertical ground reaction force, pGRF posterior ground reaction force; lGRF lateral ground reaction force, PP pre-planned, UP unplanned, M male, F female, ß beta value, ↑ increased, ↓ decreased, R2 coefficient of determination, sig significantly