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Table 2 Summary of the chronic responses of redox homeostasis variables in adolescent athletes with an overview of the variables examined, the type of activity and sampling times, and the main findings in relation to each variable

From: Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Responses to Training in Adolescent Athletes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Author and date, sport Participants Redox status variables examined Type of activity and sampling times Main findings
Kabasakalis et al. 2009 [16], swimming 11 adolescent boys and 13 adolescent girls, age 10–11 years GSH, GSSG, TAC, CAT, TBARS Swimmers were monitored pre-, after 13 and 23 weeks of regular swimming period Post 13 weeks, athletes: ↑ GSH, GSH/GSSG, ↓GSSG, ↔TAC, CAT, TBARS. Post 23 weeks: ↑GSH, ↔TAC, CAT, TBARS
LeMoal et al. 2016 [36], soccer 19 elite professional soccer players, age 18.3 ± 0.6 years SOD, GPx, GSH/GSSG The variation of antioxidants was monitored in July, September, December, January, and May Athletes displayed: ↔ SOD, GPx
Sahin et al. 2013 [25], swimming 10 adolescent males, age 12.7 ± 0.4 years, and 19 females, age 12.1 ± 0.3 years GSH, NO, TAS, SOD, CAT, GPx, TP-SH, PC, TBARS Athletes were evaluated at the beginning, after 8 and 16 weeks of a regular swimming period After 16 weeks athletes had: ↑TBARS, PC, NO, SOD, CAT, GSH ↓GPx, ↔TAS
Sopic et al. 2014 [53], soccer 16 soccer players, age 18.1 ± 0.4 yrs. O2-, MDA, TAS, TOS, PAB, SH Athletes were assessed after 45 days of preparation After 45 days of training athletes displayed: ↓TOS, MDA, ↑SH, ↔TAS, PAB, O2
Tong et al. 2013 [45], athletics 10 adolescent runners, age 15.5 ± 1.3 years TBARS, XO, CAT, GSH, SOD, T-AOC Runners performed a 21-km running race twice; at pre-season and after 1 year of training At the end season race, athletes displayed post 21-km: ↓TBARS, SOD, ↑XO, CAT, ↔GSH, T-AOC
Vujovic et al. 2013 [54], soccer 12 soccer players, age of 17.3 ± 0.5 years SOD, SH, O2, MDA, AOPP Soccer athletes were measured before and after 12 weeks of endurance soccer training After 12 weeks athletes had: ↓SOD, ↑O2, ↔MDA, AOPP, SH
Zalavras et al. 2015 [26], athletics 13 trained (TAD) and 11 untrained (UAD) adolescents, age 14.1 ± 1.1 years and 14.8 ± 0.9 years respectively TAC, GSH, CAT, TBARS, PC, UA, bilirubin Athletes were monitored at pre-, post-, and 1 h post of a maximal test at the beginning of the season, after 6 (mid), and after 11 months (post) of training Athletes had: ↑PC, TBARS, UA, TAC post and 1 h post-test at mid- and post-season (except PC 1 h at mid), ↓GSH post-test at post-season and ↑CAT post at mid- and post- season
Zivkovic et al. 2013 [27], soccer 26 adolescent males, age 12–13 years and 26 age-matched controls TBARS, NO, O2-, H2O2, SOD, CAT, GSH Athletes were monitored pre- and post of a 6-month soccer training ↑TBARS, NO2, ↑SOD, CAT, ↔O2, H2O2, ↓GSH
  1. O2- superoxide anion radical, H2O2 hydrogen peroxide, XO xanthine oxidase, NO nitric oxide, GSH reduced glutathione, GSSG oxidized glutathione, SH sulfhydryl-groups, TBARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, MDA malondialdehyde, LOOH lipid hydroperoxide, PC protein carbonyls, CI carbonyls, AOPP advanced oxidation proteins, SOD superoxide dismutase, CAT catalase, GPx glutathione peroxidase, TAC total antioxidant capacity, T-AOC total antioxidant capacity, TAS total antioxidant status, TOS total oxidative status, PAB pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, UA uric acid, CK creatine kinase