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Table 3 Summary of included original studies investigating ‘supervised rehabilitation frequency’

From: The Influence, Barriers to and Facilitators of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rehabilitation Adherence and Participation: a Scoping Review

Author (year) Design Population Groups: av no. appointments (av/week) Supervision category Intervention period (months) OM assessment (months) OMs
n Age (mean) Sex Graft Activity level
Beard and Dodd (1998) [31] RCT 31 28 M 21
F 5
BPTB Not stated Home: not specified
Clinic + knee class: 16 (1.33)
Unspecified
High
Mid (approx. 1-4) Pre-operative, 3 and 6 Lysholm knee score, IKDC knee evaluation form, Modified Tegner activity score, VAS sports frequency and level, VAS ADLs, Isokinetic Fl and ext (60deg/sec), KT-1000
Christensen et al. (2018) [32] Retrospective 332 31.2 M 192
F 140
HS / BPTB Not stated Unsupervised: 3–7 (0.16)
Semi-supervised: 8–13 (0.33)
Supervised: 14–35 (0.76)
Low
Mod
High
Late (0-8) 8 KOS-ADL, NPRS
Darian et al. (2015) [33] Case report 1 22 M HS Competitive sport Supervised: 15 (0.63) High Mid (0-6) Pre-operative, 1.5, 3 and 6 IKDC subjective knee evaluation, Lysholm knee score, KOOS, K-SES, single hop
De Carlo and Sell (1997) [34] Retrospective 180 26.8 M 130
F 50
BPTB Sport participation (100%) Home: 7 (0.29)
Standard routine: 20 (0.83)
Low
High
Mid (0-6) 1,6 and 12 Isokinetic Fl and ext (180deg/s)
ROM, Modified Noyes Questionnaire
Dempsey et al. (2019) [30] Cross-sectional 60 29.7 M 31
F 29
HS/BPTB Competitive (57%)
Recreational (41%)
Non-athletes (3%)
Cohort: 58.2 (2.24) High Mid (av. 6.3) At physician clearance (6.3) Isokinetic ext (60deg/sec), isometric ext (90deg), single hop for distance, IKDC 2000 subjective knee evaluation, physiotherapy questionnaire
Feller et al. (2004) [35] Retrospective 20 28 M 16
F 4
HS/BPTB Not stated Minimal: 0–3 (0.04)
Intermediate: 4–11 (0.14)
Regular: 15-50 (0.51)
Low
Low
High
Late (0–12) 12 Cincinnati knee score, Cincinnati occupational rating scale, Cincinnati sports activity level, IKDC knee evaluation form, KT-1000
Fischer at al. (1998) [36] Prospective 54 30.5 M 28
F 26
BPTB/allograft Not stated Home: 5 (0.21)
Clinic: 19.9 (0.83)
Low
High
Mid (0–6) Examination at 1 week, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6
Lysholm at 3 and 6
Hops and HSQ at 6
Lysholm knee score, HSQ, ROM, KT-1000, Effusion, PFJ crepitus, anterior draw, medial-lateral laxity, posterior draw, Lachman’s, pivot shift, thigh atrophy, single hop for distance, 6m timed hop, triple hop for distance, triple crossover hop for distance
Grant and Mohtadi (2005) [37] RCT 145 29.3 M 85
F 60
Not stated Not stated Home: 3 (0.25)
Clinic: 14 (1.17)
Mod
High
Early (0–3) Pre-operative, 1.5 and 3 ACL-QoL questionnaire, ROM, KT-2000, knee ROM in gait, isokinetic Fl and ext (180deg/sec)
Grant et al. (2010) [38] RCT 88 33.7 M 58%
F 42%
Not stated Not stated Home: 3 (0.25)
Clinic: 14 (1.17)
Mod
High
Early (0–3) 26-53 ACL-QoL, ROM, KT-1000, IKDC knee evaluation form, isokinetic Fl and ext (60deg/sec)
Han et al. (2015) [39] Retrospective 93 23 M 82
F 11
HS Recreational athletes Non-compliant: 3.6 (0.1)
Mod compliant: 10.7 (0.3)
Fully compliant: 17 (0.47)
Low
Mod
Mod
Late (0–9) Pre-operative
9
Self-report RTS, Cincinnati sport activity level, Lysholm knee score, KOOS, SF-36, PCS, MCS
Hohmann et al. (2011) [40] RCT 40 28.5 M 20
F 20
BPTB Physically active Home: 5 (0.10)
Clinic: 45 (0.86)
Low
High
Late (0–12) 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity level scale, single hop for distance 6 m timed hop, vertical jump, isokinetic F and ext (120deg/sec), isometric ext (30deg)
Inacio et al. (2016) [41] Retrospective 6385 28 M 4657 F 1728 HS/BPTB/allograft Not stated Medical encounters in days 1–90 and 91–180 N/A Mid (0–6) Mean 2.8 ± 1.8 years Revisions within 6 months
Lim et al. (2019) [42] Prospective 26 35.5 M 18
F 8
HS Not stated Home-based: 0 (0)
Supervised: 48 (2)
Low
High
Mid (0–6) Pre-operative and 6 Isokinetic Fl and ext (60deg/sec and 180 deg/sec), Biodex stability system SD OSI
Miller et al. (2017) [43] Retrospective 660 29.4 M 389
F 271
Not stated Not stated Minimal: < 9
Moderate: 9–14
High: > 15
Unable to determine Mid (3+) Admission and last formal PT visit KOS-ADL, NPRS, age, sex, intervention charges, ACL revision rate, area deprivation index, payer mix
Przybylak et al. (2018) [44] Prospective 50 30.5 M 37
F 13
HS/BPTB Recreational athletes Home: 6 (0.12)
Supervised: 48 (0.92)
Low
High
Late (0–12) Pre-operative and 12 Kujal’s Scoring questionnaire, Tegner activity scale, KOOS, ROM, FMS
Revenas et al. (2009) [45] RCT 51 22.5 M 33
F 18
HS / BPTB Not stated Guided therapy: 3 (0.07)
Knee class: 15 (0.33)
Low
Mod
Late (1.5–12) Pre-operative 6 and 12 IKDC knee evaluation form, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity level scale, isometric ext (90deg), single hop for distance, ROM
Schenck et al. (1997) [46] RCT 37 23.5 M 28
F 9
BPTB Not stated Home: 2.85 (0.12)Clinic: 14.2 (0.6) Low
High
Mid (0–6) Pre-operative, 3 and 12 ROM, Lysholm knee score, VAS pain, single hop for distance, KT-1000, SIP, level of activity, surgery satisfaction
Tracey et al. (1997) [47] Retrospective 39 25.2 M 54
F 15
BPTB Competitive recreational athletes (80%) Home: 7.3 (0.30)
Minimally compliant subgroup: 12 (0.5)
Clinic: 60 (2.5)
Non-compliant subgroup: 1.7 (0.07)
Mod
Mod
High
Low
Mid (0–6) 16 (12–30) ROM, anterior draw, Lachman's, pivot shift, Lysholm knee score, activity level (4 levels), surgery satisfaction
Ugutmen et al. (2008) [48] RCT 104 31.5 M 103
F 1
HS Not stated Home: unspecified
Clinic: unspecified
Unspecified 0–8 Mean 21.1 (12–66) Xray, MRI, subjective comments from patients, thigh atrophy
NPRS, effusion, ROM, KT-1000
PFJ pain and crepitation, Lachman's, pivot shift, anterior drawer, Lysholm knee score, HSS, IKDC knee evaluation form
Yu et al. (2017) [49] Retrospective 42 21.4 M 39
F 3
BPTB Not stated Rupture: 18 (0.35)
No rupture: 18.6 (0.36)
Mod
Mod
0–12 N/A Re-rupture
  1. ACL anterior cruciate ligament, ADLs activities daily living, BPTB bone-patella-tendon-bone, deg degree, ext extension, F female, Fl flexion, FMS functional movement screen, HS hamstring, HSQ Health status questionnaire, HSS hospital of special surgery, IKDC International knee documentation committee, KOOS knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score, KOS-ADL knee outcome survey–activities of daily living, K-SES knee–self-efficacy scale, m metre, M male, MCS mental component summary, MRI magnetic resonance image, NPRS numeric pain rating scale, OSI overall stability index, PCS physical component summary, PFJ patellofemoral joint, RCT randomised controlled trial, ROM range of motion, RTS return to sport, sec seconds, SF-36 short form-36, SIP sickness impact profile, VAS visual analog scale