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Table 3 Results of the HRexercise, the RPE scale, and the C during exercise, presented in mean and SE. Different lower case letters represent significant differences between speeds. € symbol represents significant differences in factor time (pre- and post-training) within each group. *Significant differences between NW and FW groups (in pre- and post-training moments)

From: Nordic walking training in elderly, a randomized clinical trial. Part II: Biomechanical and metabolic adaptations

VariableSpeedFW pre (mean ± SE)FW post (mean ± SE)FW pre (mean ± SE)FW post (mean ± SE)GroupTimeSpeedGroup*timeGroup*speedTime*speedGroup*time*speed
      p      
HRexercise (bpm)1 km h−185.25 ± 3.09a80.44 ± 2.35a83.45 ± 3.85a80.47 ± 3.80a0.5730.016< 0.0010.4430.6590.5250.699
2 km h−190.26 ± 3.03b84.87 ± 2.88b85.79 ± 3.53b84.26 ± 3.77a
3 km h−192.65 ± 3.16b87.88 ± 2.99 b89.25 ± 3.48c87.53 ± 3.79b
4 km h−199.05 ± 2.95c92.58 ± 3.04 c94.13 ± 3.78d91.30 ± 3.65c
5 km h−1107.97 ± 4.03d102.65 ± 3.67d103.68 ± 4.55e98.86 ± 3.72d
RPE1 km h−11.71 ± 0.23a*1.50 ± 0.16a*1.33 ± 0.12a*1.08 ± 0.08a*0.0010.002< 0.0010.2800.0350.0220.038
2 km h−11.93 ± 0.18a*1.93 ± 0.18a*1.33 ± 0.12a*1.17 ± 0.10a*
3 km h−12.07 ± 0.18a*1.86 ± 0.13a*1.67 ± 0.18ab*1.42 ± 0.14a*
4 km h−12.71 ± 0.15b*2.14 ± 0.13b*2.07 ± 0.14b*2.00 ± 0.11b*
5 km h−13.79 ± 0.23c*2.86 ± 0.17c*2.80 ± 0.19c*2.58 ± 0.14c*
C (J kg−1 m−1)1 km h−18.83 ± 0.50a7.72 ± 0.64a8.07 ± 0.58a6.55 ± 0.69a0.0560.014< 0.0010.2610.5360.0290.256
2 km h−15.60 ± 0.26bc5.59 ± 0.37bc5.44 ± 0.41bc4.27 ± 0.28bc
3 km h−14.65 ± 0.25bd4.44 ± 0.26bd4.45 ± 0.29bd3.68 ± 0.31bd
4 km h−14.54 ± 0.20b4.36 ± 0.22b4.18 ± 0.24b3.76 ± 0.27b
5 km h−14.78 ± 0.21b4.66 ± 0.22b4.34 ± 0.27b3.86 ± 0.25b
  1. HRexercise represents exercise heart rate, RPE represents the result of the rating of perceived exertion scale, and C represents the cost of transport value during walking on the treadmill tests at different speeds. p represents the results of the statistical tests