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Table 3 Overview of intervention studies assessing specific COD-training and sprint and the effect upon COD-performance

From: Effect of Different Physical Training Forms on Change of Direction Ability: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

COD-training
ReferenceNumber (n) of subjects and mean ageLevel and sportWeek tr./tr per weekExperimental group, Improvement (seconds)Control group, improvement (seconds)Improvement, percent (%)Effect size (ES)Training intervention,
experimental group.
(S) series and
(R) repetitions per session
COD-test
1) Length (meter)
2) Number of CODs
3) Degrees° of CODs
Specific COD-training
Teixeira et al. [85]EG, n = 7
Age: 18.71 ± 1.94
Women Futsal5/2Pre: 4.52 ± 0.13
Post: 4.57 ± 0.16
NoneEG: -1.11%EG, ES = -0.34Training with 1 COD (4 × 4)Shuttle-run
1) 40 m
2) 2
3) 180°
Teixeira et al. [85]EG, n = 7
Age: 18.71 ± 1.94
Women Futsal5/2Pre: 4.51 ± 0.2
Post: 4.64 ± 0.16
NoneEG: -2.88%EG, ES = -0.72Training with 3 CODs (4 × 4)Shuttle-run
1) 40 m
2) 2
3) 180°
Beato et al. [86]EG, n = 21
Age: 17 ± 0.8
Men, Jr, Soccer6/2Pre:4.79 ± 0.13
Post:4.79 ± 0.12
NoneEG: 0%EG, ES = 0COD- training (45°, 90° and 180° change direction) 84 per week505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180°
Young and Rogers [87]EG, n = 12.
Age: 17.4 ± 0.7
Australian rules, Football. Men, U-197/ 1–2Pre:8.65 ± 0.45 Post:8.64 ± 0.32NoneEG: 0.12%EG, ES = 0.0261–5 COD, under 90°COD, 2–5 m. 4 different exercises per session, 36–48 COD per sessionPre-planned AFL-agility
1) 8 m
2) 1
3) 135 °
Milanovic et al. [88]EG, n = 66
Age = U-19
CG, n = 66
Age = U-19
Young Men, Soccer, U-194/
1–2
Pre:7.40 ± 0.33
Post:7.29 ± 0.35
Pre:7.46 ± 0.35 Post:7.49 ± 0.36EG: 1.49%
CG: -0.40%
EG, ES = 0.32
CG, ES = -0.01
Total 48 different exercises for specific COD, a variety of intensities1) 30 m
2) 4
3) 180 °
Chaouachi et al. [89]EG, n = 12
CG, n = 12
Age:14.2 ± 0.9
Young Men, elite- Soccer6/3Pre:7.40 ± 0.56
Post:7.03 ± 0.47
Pre:7.74 ± 0.32
Post:7.54 ± 0.30
EG: 5%
CG: 2.58%
EG, ES = 0.72
CG, ES = 0.65
S:1–2, R:2–4, 10 m tripping, 505, T test and repeated sprintZig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100 °
Chaalali et al. [90]EG, n = 11 Age:14.5 ± 0.9Young Men, elite- Soccer6/2Pre:2.42 ± 0.15
Post:2.34 ± 0.11
Pre:2.52 ± 0.14 Post:2.49 ± 0.09EG:3.31%
CG:1.19%
EG. ES = 0.61
CG, ES = 0.26
2 different CODs each week, with 2–3 completions505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180 °
Repeated COD
Chtara et al. [51]EG, n = 10
CG, n = 10
Age:13.6 ± 0.3
Men, Jr, Soccer7/1Pre:7.14 ± 0.18 Post:6.86 ± 0.17Pre:7.12 ± 0.22 Post:7.07 ± 0.21EG:3.92%
CG:0.70%
EG, ES = 1.60
CG, ES = 0.23
505, T test, repeated cone-sprint with change direction, S:2, R:2-4Zig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
100 °
Born et al. [91]EG, n = 19
Age: 14 ± 0.6
Young Men, elite- Soccer2/3Pre:17.8 ± 0.3
Post: 17.3 ± 0.5
NoneEG: 2.81%EG, ES = 1.25Sprint 15 seconds with 180° change direction. S:4,R:5Illinois agility-test
1) 60 m
2) 9
4 × 180 ° and 4 × 60 °
Born et al. [91]EG, n = 19 Age: 14 ± 0.6Young Men, elite- Soccer2/3Pre:18.2 ± 0.9 Post:17.8 ± 0.6NoneEG: 2.2%EG, ES = 0.53Sprint 15 seconds with different change directions S:4, R:5Illinois agility-test
1) 60 m
2) 9
1) 4 × 180 ° and 4 × 60°
Nakamura et al. [92]EG, n = 10 Age: 14.7 ± 0.5
CG, n = 9 Age:14.9 ± 0.4
Young Men, Soccer, High VO2- max8/2Pre: 15.3 ± 1.3
Post:14.6 ± 1.5
Pre: 16.5 ± 0.3
Post:16.4 ± 0.4
EG: 4.58%
CG:
0.61%
EG, ES = 0.5
CG, ES = 0.29
S:3, R:10, 18 m repeated sprint with two 90° change direction1) 70 m
2) 3
1) 180 °
Nakamura et al. [92]EG, n = 10
Age: 14.4 ± 0.5
CG, n = 9 Age:14.9 ± 0.4
Young Men, Soccer
Low VO2-max
8/2Pre: 16.6 ± 1.4
Post:16.4 ± 1.6
Pre: 16.5 ± 0.3
Post:16.4 ± 0.4
EG:
1.20%
CG:
0.61%
EG, ES = 0.13
CG, ES = 0.29
S:3, R:10, 18 m repeated sprint with two 90° change direction1) 70 m
2) 3
1) 180 °
Taylor et al. [93]EG, n = 7
Age: 24.1 ± 4.1
Semi- prof. Men, Soccer2/3Pre: 15.55 ± 0.48
Post: 15.8
NoneEG:1.94%EG, ES = 0.52Repeated sprint, 10 m + with 180° change direction.
S:3–4,R:7
Illinois agility-test
1) 60 m
2) 9
3) 4 × 180 ° and 4 × 60 °
Small-sided games
Bujalance-Moreno et al. [94]EG, n = 12
Age: 21 ± 5.27
CG, n = 11
Age: 20.66 ± 3.39
Men
Soccer
Semi-Prof/ Amateur
5/2Pre: 4.83 ± 0.5
Post: 4.5 ± 0.5
Pre: 5.2 ± 0.5
Post: 5.27 ± 0.5
EG: 6.83%
CG: -1.35%
EG, ES = 1.32
CG, ES = -0.14
Small-sided games, 18–23 min per session
2vs2 and 4vs4
COD ability test
1) 24 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 45 ° and 2 × 90 °
Coutinho et al. [95]EG, n = 9
Age: 14.2 ± 0.8
CG, n = 9
Age: 13.9 ± 0.5
Men
Soccer
U15
10/2Pre: 6.74 ± 0.42
Post: 6.34 ± 0.38
Pre: 6.55 ± 0.33
Post: 6.41 ± 0.36
EG: 5.93%
CG: 2.14%
EG, ES = 1
CG, ES = 0.41
Small-sided games. 24 min
1vs1, 3vs3, 6vs6
Repeated COD
1) 20 m
2) 4
3) 100°
Coutinho et al. [95]EG, n = 6
Age: 15.8 ± 0.53
CG, n = 6
Age: 16.1 ± 0.7
Men
Soccer
U17
10/2Pre: 6.45 ± 0.19
Post: 6.12 ± 0.36
Pre: 6.35 ± 0.36
Post: 6.12 ± 0.19
EG: 5.12%
CG: 3.62%
EG, ES = 1.20
CG, ES = 0.84
Small-sided games. 24 min
1vs1, 3vs3, 6vs6
Repeated COD
4) 20 m
5) 4
6) 100 °
Paul et al. [96]Eg, n = 12
Age: 16.2 ± 0.8
Men
Soccer
4/5Right turn:
Pre: 4.21 ± 0.1
Post: 4.08 ± 0.2
Left turn:
Pre: 4.23 ± 0.2
Post: 4.16 ± 0.1
NoneRight turn:
EG: 3.09%
Left turn:
EG: 1.65%
Right turn:
EG, ES = 0.87
Left turn:
EG, ES = 0.47
Small sided games and high intensity trainingModified L-run
1) 20 m
2) 1
3) 90 °
Young and Rogers [87]EG, n = 13
Age: 17.4 ± 0.7
Australian rules, Football. Men, U-197/ 1–2Pre:8.67 ± 0.29 Post:8.74 ± 0.42NoneEG: 0.81%EG, ES = 0.198Small-sided game, 4vs4 and 2vs2. 30–45 sPlanned AFL-agility
1) 8 m
2) 1
3) 135 °
Chaouachi et al. [89]EG, n = 12
CG, n = 12
Age:14.2 ± 0.9
Young Men, elite- Soccer6/3Pre: 7.40 ± 0.56
Post:7.03 ± 0.47
Pre:7.74 ± 0.32
Post:7.54 ± 0.30
EG: 2.47%
CG: 2.58%
EG, ES = 0.67
CG, ES = 0.65
Small sided game, 1vs1 (30 sec), 2vs2(1 min) and 3vs3(2 min)Zig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100 °
Resisted sprints
de Hoyo et al. [77]EG, n = 12
Age: 17 ± 1
Men, Jr elite- level Soccer8/2Pre: 5.26 ± 0.16
Post:5.28 ± 0.17
NoneEG: -0.38%EG, ES = -0.12Resisted Sprint with 12,6% of athletes BM, 20 m sprint, S:1, R:4Zig-zag test
4) 20 m
5) 3
6) 100 °
Prieske et al. [72]EG, n = 10
Age: 23 ± 3
CG, n = 16
Age: 23 ± 3
Men and Women, University students6/3Pre:11.03 ± 1.23
Post: 10.65 ± 0.58
Pre:10.42 ± 0.91
Post: 10.2 ± 0.86
EG: 3.45%
CG: 2.11%
EG: ES = 0.42
CG, ES = 0.25
Resisted sprint exercises with elastic straps on motorized treadmill.
S: 3–4
T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Mathisen and Pettersen [97]EG, n = 10
Age:15.5 ± 0.7
CG, n = 9
Age: 15.1 ± 0.5
Young Women, Soccer8/1Pre:8.23 ± 0.31
Post:7.80 ± 0.33
Pre: 8.04 ± 0.14
Post: 8.01 ± 0.15
EG: 5,22%
CG: 0,37%
EG, ES = 1,34
CG, ES = 0,21
Resisted Sprint, over-speed run, sprint with change direction. Total 32 sprints, 15–20 mAgility course
1) 20 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Straight forward sprint
Young et al. [98]EG, n = 13
CG, n = 10
Age: 24.0 ± 5.7
Volunteer 1-year experience with COD6/2Pre: 9.51 ± 0.52
Post: 9.51 ± 0.52
Pre: 9.68 ± 0.67
Post: 9.78 ± 0.66
EG:0%
CG:-1.03%
EG, ES = 0
CG, ES = -0.15
Straight forward sprint, with varied distances (20 m – 40 m)1) 30 m
2) 5
3) 100 °
Repeated sprint
Chtara et al. [51]EG, n = 12
Age:13.6 ± 0.3
CG, n = 10
Men, Jr, Soccer7/1Pre:7.15 ± 0.20 Post:6.88 ± 0.14Pre:7.12 ± 0.22 Post:7.07 ± 0.21EG:3.78%
CG:0.70%
EG, ES = 1.59
CG, ES = 0.23
Repeated sprint with different distances and series, R:2, S:2–4Zig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100 °
Taylor et al. [93]EG, n = 8
Age: 24.1 ± 4.1
Semi- prof. Men, Soccer2/3Pre: 15.20 ± 0.52
Post: 15.17
NoneEG: 0.20%EG, ES = 0.06Different numbers of series with repeated sprint, 20 and 30 m
S:3–4, R:7
Illinois agility-test
1) 60 m
2) 9
3) 4 × 180 ° and 4 × 60 °
  1. Abbreviations: Tr: Training; CODs: Change of new directions; Pre: Pre-test; Post: Post-test; EG: Experimental group; CG: Control group; None: Control group not provided; BM: Body mass