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Table 2 Overview of intervention studies assessing training for PAP and strength training and the effect upon COD-performance

From: Effect of Different Physical Training Forms on Change of Direction Ability: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Training for PAP and strength training
ReferenceNumber (n) of subjects and mean ageLevel and sportWeek tr./tr per weekExperimental group, improvement (Seconds)Control group, improvement (seconds)Improvement, percent (%)Effect size (ES)Training intervention,
experimental group.
(S) series and
(R) repetitions per session
COD-test
1) Length (meter)
2) Number of CODs
3) Degrees° of CODs
Training for PAP
Hammami et al. [63]EG, n = 16
Age:16.0 ± 0.5
CG, n = 12
Age:16.8 ± 0.2
Men, Jr, Soccer8/2Pre: 8.37 ± 0.21
Post: 7.93 ± 0.26
Pre: 8.41 ± 0.33
Post: 8.40 ± 0.35
EG: 5.26%
CG: 0.12%
EG, ES = 1.87
CG, ES = 0.03
Half Squat S: 3–5, R: 3–8, 70–90% of 1RM + 4 different squat jumps. Immediate transition for potentiation effect1) 30 m
2) 5
3) 180 °
Spineti et al. [64]EG, n = 10
Age: 18.4 ± 0.4
Men, Young Soccer8/3Pre: 6.93 ± 0.15
Post: 6.97 ± 0.2
NoneEG: -0.58%EG, ES = -0.235RM high pull power followed by frontal sprint, knee ups plus frontal sprint and Zig zag sprint. Multiple jumps. R:4–6 + 10 jumps. Immediate transitionRSA 1) 40
2) 1
3) 180°
Hammami et al. [65]EG, n = 14
Age: 16.6 ± 0.3
CG, n = 14
Age: 16.6 ± 0.3
Women, Junior, Handball10/2Pre: 7.21 ± 0.21
Post: 6.84 ± 0.21
Pre: 7.2 ± 0.34
Post: 7.16 ± 0.35
EG: 5.13%
CG: 0.56%
EG, ES = 1.76
CG, ES = 0.12
Heavy strength exercises: Half squats, thigh press, isometric half-squat and calf extension followed by different jumps and 10 m sprints.1–2 min rest for potentiationModified T test
1) 20 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Alves et al. [66]EG, n = 9
CG, n = 6
Age: 17.4 ± 0.6
Young Men, elite- Soccer6/1Pre:2.34 ± 0.11
Post:2.31 ± 0.09
Pre:2.37 ± 0.09
Post:2.39 ± 0.15
EG:1.28%
CG:-0.84%
EG, ES = 0.3
CG, ES = -0.167
Squat, calf extension, leg extension + high skipping, vertical jump, DJ, S:1, R:1–8505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180 °
Alves et al. [66]EG, n = 8
CG, n = 6
Age: 17.4 ± 0.6
Young Men, elite- Soccer6/2Pre:2.32 ± 0.08
Post:2.32 ± 0.03
Pre:2.37 ± 0.09
Post:2.39 ± 0.15
EG:0%
CG:-0.84%
EG, ES = 0
CG, ES = -0.167
Squat, calf extension, leg extension + high skipping, vertical jump, DJ, S:1, R:1–8. Immediate transition for potentiation505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180 °
Freitas et al. [67]EG, n = 9
Age: 21.3 ± 4.3
Men, Semi-prof, Basketball6/2Pre: 9.45 ± 0.35
Post: 9.16 ± 0.5
NoneEG: 3.07%EG, ES = 0.68Modified complex training. Half squat and hip trust with optimal loads maximizing power output S: 3–4 R: 3–5. Rest time 2.5 min to enchase potentiationT test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Kontochristopoulos et al. [68]EG, n = 10
CG, n = 10
Age: 15.8 ± 1.2
Elite male fencers8/2Pre: 5.22 ± 0.31
Post: 5.08 ± 0.27
Pre: 5.38 ± 0.36
Post: 5.42 ± 0.47
EG: 2.68%
CG: -0.74%
EG, ES = 0.48CG, ES = -0.1Half-squat, tuck jumps, step-lunges S: 3, R: 3–10. 1 min rest interval.4-2-2-4
1) 12 m
2) 3
3) 3 × 180 °
Arazi [69]EG, n = 7
Age: 20.6 ± 0.5
Young
Women
6/2Pre: 13.5 ± 1.0
Post: 13.0 ± 0.9
NoneEG: 3.8 %EG, ES = 0.46Half Squat, drop jump, knee extension, multiple jumps, knee flexion, zigzag drill, single leg lunge and lunge jump. S: 3, R: 6 (1–2 min rest)T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90° and 2 × 180°
Eccentric strength training
Núñez et al. [70]EG, n = 14
Age: 22.8 ± 2.9
Team, Sport Players6/2Dom-leg turn: Pre: 2.7 ± 0.11
Post:2.66 ± 0.12
N-Dom leg turn:
Pre:2.68 ± 0.12
Post: 2.64 ± 0.14
NoneEG Dom-leg turn: 1.48%
EG N-Dom leg turn: 1.49%
EG, ES, Dom-leg turn = 0.35
EG, ES, N-Dom leg turn: 0.31%
Unilateral eccentric overload training. Unilateral lunge on flywheel device.
S:4 R.7
505 agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180 °
Núñez et al. [70]EG, n = 13
Age: 22.6 ± 2.7
Team, Sport Players6/2Dom-leg turn: Pre: 2.68 ± 0.15
Post: 2.66 ± 0.14
N-Dom leg turn:
Pre:2.65 ± 0.15
Post: 2.65 ± 0.14
NoneEG Dom-leg turn: 0.75%
EG N-Dom leg turn: 0%
EG, ES, Dom-leg turn = 0.14
EG, ES, N-Dom leg turn: 0%
Bilateral eccentric overload training. Bilateral half-squat on flywheel device.
S:4 R.7
505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180 °
Siddle et al. [71]EG, n = 8
Age: 20.5 ± 1.55
CG, n = 8
Team, Sport Players6/2Pre: 4.48 ± 0.12
Post: 4.37 ± 0.11
Pre: 4.52 ± 0.16
Post: 4.62 ± 0.2
EG: 2.46%
CG: -2.21%
EG, ES = 0.96
EG, ES = -0.56
Eccentric Nordic hamstring
S:2–3 R:5–10
Sprint with COD
1) 20 m
2) 1
3) 180°
Strength training—machine exercises
Prieske et al. [72]EG, n = 8
Age: 23 ± 3
CG, n = 16
Age: 23 ± 2
Men and Women, Young6/3Pre: 10.19 ± 0.56
Post: 9.78 ± 0.44
Pre: 10.42 ± 0.91
Post: 10.2 ± 0.86
EG: 4.02%
CG: 2.11%
EG, ES = 0.82
CG, ES = 0.25
Power training. Leg press, leg curl, knee extension and calf raise.
S:3–5 R:10
T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Strength training—elastic band
Aloui et al. [73]EG, n = 15
Age: 18.3 ± 0.8
CG, n = 15
Age: 18.8 ± 0.8
Men, Junior, Handball8/2Pre: 6.18 ± 0.18
Post: 5.7 ± 0.22
Pre: 6.2 ± 0.2
Post: 6.03 ± 0.24
EG: 7.4 %
CG: 2.7%
EG, ES = 2.4
CG, ES = 0.8
Different elastic bands with knee and hip extensions.
S: 3 R:12–15
Modified T test
1) 20 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Strength training—Olympic lifts
Keller et al. [42]EG, n = 12
Age: 14. ± 0.8
Men, Young,
Handball
4/2Pre: 5.5 ± 0.6
Post: 5 ± 0.3
NoneEG: 9.09%EG, ES = 1.1Explosive strength. High pull, power clean.Modified T test
1) 18
2) 4
3) 2 × 90° and 2 × 180°
İnce [74]EG, n = 17
Age: 15.63 ± 1.3
CG, n = 17
Age: 15.23 ± 1.83
Women, Volleyball Students6/2Pre: 11.92 ± 0.87
Post: 11.62 ± 0.61
Pre: 12.7 ± 1.04
Post: 12.71 ± 0.92
EG: 2.52%
CG: -0.08%
EG, ES = 0.41
CG, ES = -0.01
Olympic weight lifting.
Hang split snatch, hang split clean and split jerk S:3–5 R:5
T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Strength training—squat
Hammami et al. [63]EG, n = 16
Age: 16.2 ± 0.6
CG, n = 12 Age:16.8 ± 0.2
Men, Jr, Soccer8/2Pre: 8.38 ± 0.06
Post: 8.09 ± 0.12
Pre: 8.41 ± 0.33
Post: 8.40 ± 0.35
EG: 3.46%
CG: 0.12%
EG, ES = 3.22
CG, ES = 0.03
Half Squat S:3–5, R:3–8, 70–90% of 1RM1) 30 m
2) 5
3) 180 °
Keller et al. [42]EG, n = 9
Age: 14 ± 0.8
Men, Young,
Handball
4/2Pre: 5.5 ± 0.3
Post: 4.8 ± 0.6
NoneEG: 12.73%EG, ES = 1.6Maximal strength. Squat, deadlift.
S:4–6 R: 4–10
Modified T test
1) 18
2) 4
3) 2 × 90° and 2 × 180°
van den Tillaar et al. [52]EG, n = 13
Age: 13.8 ± 0.5
Men and women, Young, handball6/2Pre:6.78 ± 0.67
Post:6,3
NoneEG:7.08%EG, ES = 0.72Squat, S: 3,R: 61) 20 m
2) 5
3) 4 × 135 ° and 1 × 90 °
Spineti et al. [64]EG, n = 12
Age: 18.4 ± 0.4
Men, Young, Elite
Soccer
8/3Pre:7.11 ± 0.19
Post: 7.04 ± 0.27
NoneEG: 0.98%EG, ES = 0.30Squat in smith machine, deadlifts, knee extension and flexion, Nordic hamstring, hip adduction and abduction.
S:2–4 R:4–15
RSA
1) 40 m
2) 1
3) 180°
Freitas et al. [67]EG, n = 9
Age: 21.3 ± 4.3
Men, Semi-prof, Basketball6/2Pre: 9.71 ± 0.67
Post: 9.46 ± 0.3
NoneEG: 2.57%EG, ES = 0.52Optimal load training. Half squat and hip trust. S: 3–4 R: 3–8T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Barbalho et al. [75]EG, n = 11
Age: 18.8 ± 0.8
CG, n = 12
Age: 19.1 ± 0.9
Men, Young. Soccer15/3Pre: 11.5 ± 0.6
Post: 11.7 ± 0.6
Pre: 11.6 ± 0.6
Post: 12.1 ± 0.8
EG: -1.74%
CG: -4.31%
EG, ES = -0.33
CG, ES = -0.71
Leg press, squat, leg curl, calf raise.
R:4–15 S:2–3
T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Chatzinikolaou et al. [76]EG: n = 12
Age: 14.3 ± 0.7
CG, n = 10
Age: 14.1 ± 0.6
Men, Young Soccer5/4Left turn:
Pre: 8.32 ± 0.33
Post: 8.25 ± 0.33
Right turn:
Pre: 8.24 ± 0.37
Post: 8.12 ± 0.37
Left turn:
Pre: 8.58 ± 0.33
Post: 8.62 ± 0.36
Right turn:
Pre: 8.49 ± 0.35
Post: 8.53 ± 0.34
Left turn:
EG: 0.84%
CG: -0.47%
Right turn:
EG: 1.46%
CG: -0.47%
Left turn:
EG, ES = 0.21
CG, ES = -0.12
Right turn:
EG, ES = 0.32
CG, ES = -0.12
Squat, Romanian deadlift, lounges, barbell cleans, kettlebell snatch, box jumps, step ups, 1 leg Romanian deadlift, power bag jerks. S:2–3. R: 6–14.Arrowhead Test
1) 37.1 m
2) 3
3) 150° × 2 and 110°
de Hoyo et al. [77]EG, n = 11
Age: 18 ± 1
Men, Jr, Soccer, elite- level8/2Pre: 4.99 ± 0.10 Post:4.97 ± 0.14NoneEG:0.40%EG, ES = 0.167Squat S: 2–3, R: 4–8Zig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100 °
Torres-Torrelo et al. [78]EG, n = 12
Age:23.8 ± 2.4
CG, n = 10
Age: 24.7 ± 4.7
Men, Futsal6/2Pre:8.03 ± 0.29
Post:7.88 ± 0.27
Pre:7.83 ± 0.31
Post:7.96 ± 0.35
EG:1.87%
CG: -1.66%
EG, ES = 0.54
CG, ES = -0.39
Squat (45%–48% of 1RM) S: 2–3, R: 4–6V-Cut test
1) 25 m
2) 4
3) 45 °
Negra et al. [79]EG, n = 13 Age:12.80 ± 0.25
CG: n = 11 Age:12.74 ± 0.26
Young Men, Fotall12/2Pre: 11.51 ± 0.50
Post:10.92 ± ±0.38
Pre: 11.73 ± 0.59
Post:11.54 ± 0.54
EG: 5.13%
CG: 1.62%
EG, ES = 1.34
CG, ES = 0.34
Half-squat S: 4, S: 8–12, core exercises, leg-extensor and flexor exercises.T test
4) 40 m
5) 4
6) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Negra et al. [79]EG, n = 14
Age: 16.1 ± 0.5
CG, n = 14
Age: 15.8 ± 0.2
Men, Jr, Soccer8/2Pre:6.25 ± 0.26
Post:5.83 ± 0.47
Pre: 6.15 ± 0.25 Post: 6.21 ± 0.24EG:6.72%
CG: -0.98%
E, ES = 1.15
K, ES = -0.24
Squat (70%-90% of 1RM), S:3-5, R:3-8Modified T-test
1) 20 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Hammami et al. [80]EG: n = 19
Age: 16.2 ± 0.6
CG n = 12
Age: 15.2 ± 0.2
Men, Junior
Soccer
8/2Pre: 8.39 ± 0.07
Post: 8.16 ± 0.13
Pre: 8.33 ± 0.29
Post: 8.38 ± 0.35
EG: 2.74%
CG: -0.60%
EG, ES = 2.30
CG, ES = -0.60
Half squats
S:3-5 R: 3-8
(70-90% of 1RM)
S180°
1) 30 m
2) 4
3) 180°
Panagoulis et al. [81]EG, n = 14
Age: 12.4 ± 0.57
CG, n = 14
Age: 12.2 ± 0.5
Men, Young, Soccer8/3Right turn:
Pre: 17.76 ± 0.4
Post: 17.3 ± 0.5
Left turn:
Pre: 18 ± 0.4
Post: 17.4 ± 0.5
Right turn:
Pre: 18.4 ± 1.3
Post: 18.4 ± 0.8
Left turn:
Pre: 18.3 ± 0.6
Post: 18.7 ± 0.5
Right turn:
EG: 2.59%
CG: 0.00%
Left turn:
EG: 3.33%
CG: -2.19%
Right turn:
EG, ES = 1.02
CG, ES = 0.00
Left turn:
EG, ES = 1.33
CG, ES = -0.73
Body mass squat, Nordic hamstring, Body mass RDL, Single leg RDL, squat and side lunges, good mornings, Bulgarian squats.
S:1–3 R: 5–8
Arrowhead Test
1) 37.1 m
2) 3
3) 150° × 2 and 110°
Arazi [69]EG, n = 7
Age: 20.7 ± 1.1
Young
Women
6/2Pre: 13.9 ± 0.8
Post: 13.2 ± 0.2
NoneEG: 6.4%EG, ES = 0.97Half squat, knee extension, knee flexion, single leg lunge. S: 3, R: 6T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90° and 2 × 180°
Gonzalo-Skok et al. [82]EG, n = 19
Age: 20.2 ± 1.1
Male team-sports players8/2Pre: 9.08 ± 0.37
Post: 8.94 ± 0.31
 EG: 1.54%EG, ES = 0.41Bilateral vertical strength training. Squats: S: 6, R: 6–10Average time to complete a 180° COD from 10 m, 20 m and 25 m with both a left and right turn
Speirs et al. [83]EG, n = 9Age: 18.1 ± 0.5Male rugby players Pre: 4.61 ± 0.11
Post: 4.53 ± 0.07
 EG: 1.74%EG, ES = 0.89Unilateral strength training. S: 4, R: 3–6. Split-squat.Pro-agility shuttle run
1) 18.2 m
2) 3
3) 2 × 90 ° and 1 × 180 °
Speirs et al. [83]EG, n = 9Age: 18.1 ± 0.5Male rugby players Pre: 4.71 ± 0.15
Post: 4.64 ± 0.14
 EG: 1.49%EG, ES = 0.48Bilateral strength training. S: 4, R: 3–6. Bilateral back-squat.Pro-agility shuttle run
1) 18.2 m
2) 3
3) 2 × 90 ° and 1 × 180 °
Tous-Fajardo et al. [84]EG, n = 12
Age: 17 ± 0.5
Men, Young Soccer11/1Pre: 7.09 ± 0.31
Post: 6.7 ± 0.29
NoneEG: 5.50%EG, ES = 1.30Eccentric overload and vibratory training. Backward lunges, isoinertial hamstring kicks, lateral squats, unilateral squats.
6–10reps
V-Cut
1) 25 m
2) 4
3) 45°
  1. Abbreviations: Tr: Training; CODs: Change of new directions; Pre: Pre-test; Post, Post-test; EG: Experimental group; CG: Control group; None: Control group not provided, Dom-leg: Dominant leg; N-Dom leg: Non-dominant leg; RM: Repetition maximum; RSA: Repeated sprint ability test; RDL: Romanian deadlift