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Table 1: Summary of autologous blood transfusion (ABT) studies examining changes in aerobic power and endurance performance following ABT

From: Autologous Blood Transfusion Enhances Exercise Performance—Strength of the Evidence and Physiological Mechanisms

Study Participants (n), training status, and age (years; mean ± SD) Study design ABT volume of whole blood or equivalent when reinfused as packed RBCs (mL storage type, storage duration) Change in VO2peak Performance test (duration/length) Change in performance
Gullbring et al. [1] 6 M, UT, 34 ± 8 No control group 530–689R, 1 N/A PWC/TTE cycling (N/A) 4%
Robinson et al. [20] 6 M, UT, 26 ± 6 No control group 1000–1200R, 2 N/A N/A
Ekblom et al. [13] 7 M, WT, 24 ± 1 No control group 800–1200R, 4 ↑ 9% (1) TTE running (~ 5 min) ↑ 23% (1)
Williams et al. [21] 20 M, MT-WT, 22 ± 4 Double-blind, placebo-controlled 500R, 3 N/A TTE running (~ 10 min)
Von Rost et al. [8] 6 M, MT, N/A Controlled 900R, 3–4 ↑ 6% TTE running (~ 5 min) ↑ 37%
Ekblom et al. [22] 5 M, WT, 23–31 No control group 800R, 5 ↑ 8% N/A N/A
Bell et al. [23] 15 M, MT, 18–24 Controlled 500R, 3 TTE cycling (~ 15 min)
Kots et al. [16] 10 M, UT-WT, 22–32 No control group 500R, 3 PWC/TTE cycling (~ 10 min) ↑ 40%
Williams et al. [24] 16 M, WT, 32 ± 7 Double-blind, placebo-controlled 460F, 3 N/A TTE running (~ 45 min)
Buick et al. [10] 11 M, WT, 21 ± 3 Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover 900F, 7 ↑ 5% TTE running (7–10 min) ↑ 31–35%
Williams et al. [14] 12 M, WT, 33 ± 6 Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover 920F, 7 N/A TT running (5 miles) ↑ 3%
Thomson et al. [25] 4 M, MT-WT, 23 ± 1 No control group 1000F, 12 ↑ 12% N/A N/A
Thomson et al. [26] 4 M, MT-WT, 23 ± 1 No control group 1000F, 12 ↑ 13% N/A N/A
Kanstrup and Ekblom [11] 5 M, WT, 25 ± 4 No control group 900R, 5 ↑ 7% TTE running (5–6 min) ↑ 24%
Robertson et al. [5] 9 W, UT-MT, 23 ± 2 Single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover 475F, 9 ↑ 10% PWC cycling ↑ 23%
Celsing et al. [27] 9 M, WT, 29 ± 2 No control group 3500R, F, 1–8 ↑ 19% N/A N/A
Spriet et al. [28] 4 M, WT, 25 ± 1 No control group 1350F, 9–11 ↑ 7% N/A N/A
Muza et al. [29] 12 M, MT-WT, 27 ± 6 Double-blind, placebo-controlled 600F, 6 ↑ 11% N/A N/A
Berglund and Hemmingsson [2, 30] 11 M, 1 W, WT, 19–35 Single-blind, placebo-controlled 1350 R, 4 N/A TT cross-country skiing (15 km) ↑ 5%
Brien and Simon [9] 6 M, WT, 24 ± 5 Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover 900F, 11 N/A TT running (10 km) ↑ 3%
Celsing et al. [31] 8 M, UT-MT, 28 ± 3 Controlled 2250F, 5–7 ↑ 7% N/A N/A
Sawka et al. [32] 9 M, MT, 30 ± 7 Double-blind, placebo-controlled 600F, N/A ↑ 11% N/A N/A
Ekblom and Berglund [12] 15 M, MT-WT, 27 ± 3 No control group 1350F. 8 ↑ 8% TTE running (7–9 min) ↑ 16%
Turner et al. [15] 7 M, MT, 26 ± 3 No control group 900F, 8–12 ↑ 6% TT cycling (30 min) ↑ 5%
Ziegler et al. [6] 8 M, UT-WT, 33 ± 2 No control group 450R, 4 ↑ 5% TT running (3 km) ↑ 5%
Malm et al. [3] 17 M, MT-WT, 34 ± 8 Placebo-controlled 900F, 15–16 ↑ 12% TTE running (6–7 min) ↑ 17%
Bennett-Guerrero et al. [4] 4 M, UT-MT, 34 ± 5 1 week, 29 ± 7 6 weeks No control group 900R, 1 or 6 ↑ 9% 1 week, ↑ 2% 6 weeks TTE cycling (12–16 min) ↑ 8% 1 week, ↓3% 6 weeks
Bejder et al. [7] 9 M, WT, 29 ± 5 Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover 225R, 4
675R, 4
N/A
TT cycling (650 kcal) ↑ 4%
↑ 5%
  1. ABT autologous blood transfusion, M men, W women, VO2peak peak oxygen uptake, RBCs red blood cells, R refrigerated, F frozen, positive change, negative change, ↔ non-significant change/unchanged, N/A not available, (1) group 1, WT well-trained (VO2peak of > 55 mL O2/kg/min), MT moderately trained (45–55 mL O2/kg/min), UT untrained (< 45 mL O2/kg/min), TT time trial, TTE time to exhaustion, PWC physical work capacity given as work (kg-force metres/min) performed to exhaustion