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Table 2 Common lumbar spine injuries in sports and their treatments

From: Lumbar Spine Injuries in Sports: Review of the Literature and Current Treatment Recommendations

Injury type Treatment
Fractures Minor fractures are best treated with rest, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, and bracing.
Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis Full-time Boston brace is the first line treatment for early spondylolysis [52]. Physical therapy alone that includes exercise programs and stretches is acceptable [53]. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion, posterolateral fusion, or anterior interbody fusion are used as surgical management [56, 57].
Disc herniation Early activity and core strengthening are first-line treatments for conservative management. Laminotomy and disc fragment excision have an 81% return to play rate [10, 61]. NFL players benefited from undergoing surgical correction, but MLB players were less well off than players who underwent nonsurgical therapy [10, 62].