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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The Role of Aerobic Training Variables Progression on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review with Meta-analysis

Study Age (years)
Mean ± SD
HbA1c baseline (%)
or change (%)
Mean ± SD
Training status Comorbidities Nutritional co-intervention Adverse events Adherence (%) Drop-outs
Progressive aerobic training
Alvarez et al. 2016 [12] 45 ± 2 I: 7.0 ± 0.5
C: 7.4 ± 0.5
Untrained Overweight and obesity No Post-exercise hypoglycemia 89 I: 0%
C: 29%
Belli et al. 2011 [28] 54 ± 2 I: 6.8 ± 0.4
C: 7.2 ± 0.5
Untrained NR No NR 92 I: 33%
C: 20%
Kadoglou et al. 2007 [35] 61 ± 4 I: − 0.6 ± 0.4*
C: 0.3 ± 0.1*
Untrained NR No No NR I: 3%
C: 11%
Kadoglou et al. 2012 [44] 58 ± 6 I: − 0.6 ± 0.1*
C: − 0.05 ± 0.01*
Untrained Overweight and obesity Standard nutritional prescription, orientation No NR I: 10%
C: 14%
Lambers et al. 2008 [29] 54 ± 8 I: 7.4 ± 1.7
C: 6.7 ± 0.9
NR Obesity, cardiovascular risk No Hypoglycemia 85% I: 28%
C: 17%
Mitranun et al. 2014 [23] 61 ± 2 I (Interval): 7.6 ± 0.3
I (Continuous): 7.7 ± 2.0
C: 7.8 ± 2.0
Untrained NR No NR At least 80% I: 7%
C: 13%
Negri et al. 2010 [30] 65 ± 5 I: 7.5 ± 0.2
C: 7.4 ± 0.5
Untrained NR No Hypoglycemia At least 50% I: 33%
C: 5%
Oliveira et al. 2012 [31] 52 ± 9 I: 7.4 ± 1.8
C: 7.0 ± 0.7
Untrained NR No Hypoglycemia, hypotension NR I: 11%
C: 31%
Sentinelli et al. 2014 [32] 57 ± 7 I: 7.1 ± 1.3
C: 7.1 ± 1.3
Untrained NR No NR NR I: 0%
C: 0%
Tomar et al. 2013 [33] 43 ± 10 I: 8.3 ± 3.5
C: 8.9 ± 5.9
Untrained NR No No 100% I: 17%
C: 0%
Vancea et al. 2009 [45] 57 ± 6 I: − 0.8 ± 1.4*
C: − 0.3 ± 0.4*
NR NR No NR NR NR
Yavari et al. 2012 [34] 49 ± 8 I: 8.5 ± 1.1
C: 8.7 ± 1.1
Untrained NR No NR 80% I: 19%
C: 19%
Non-progressive aerobic training
Blonk et al. 1994 [36] 58.7* I: − 1.0 ± 4.7*
C: − 0.1 ± 9.5*
NR NR Yes NR NR I: 12%
C: 15%
Church et al. 2010 [20] 56 ± 8 I: 7.5 ± 0.6
C: 7.61 ± 0.64
Untrained NR No No NR NR
Emereziani et al. 2015 [37] 66 ± 4 I: 6.7 ± 1.6
C: 7.0 ± 1.5
Untrained NR Yes NR NR NR
Giannopoulou et al. 2005 [38] 57 ± 2 I: 6.8 ± 0.5
C: 7.3 ± 0.5
Untrained Obesity Yes NR NR I: 21%
C: 39%
Jorge et al. 2011 [22] 53 ± 9 I: 7.6 ± 1.7
C: 6.9 ± 0.7
Untrained Overweight and obesity No NR 97% I: 10%
C:31%
Karstoft et al. 2013 [21] 58 ± 2 I (Continuous): 6.6 ± 0.2
I (Interval): 6.9 ± 0.2
Control: 6.4 ± 0.2
Untrained NR No NR 89% I: 9%
C: 0%
Kwon et al. 2011 [39] 65 ± 6 I: 7.5 ± 0.7
C: 7.2 ± 0.8
Untrained Overweight No NR NR I: 9%
C: 0%
Midlebrooke et al. 2006 [40] 63 ± 7 I: 6.8 ± 0.9
C: 7.2 ± 1.1
Physically active and untrained Proliferative retinopathy, sensory neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, microalbuminuria No No 80% I: 47%
C: 0%
Nuttamonwarakul et al. 2012 [46] > 60 I: 7.7 ± 1.1
C: 7.6 ± 0.2
NR NR No NR NR NR
Parra-Sanchez et al. 2015 [41] 72 ± 4 I: 7.0 ± 0.9
C: 7.3 ± 1.1
Untrained NR No No NR I: 6%
C: 22%
Shenoy et al. 2009 [42] 55 ± 5 I: 8.1 ± 0.9
C: 7.8 ± 0.9
Untrained NR No No NR NR
Yan et al. 2014 [43] 54 ± 2 I: 8.8 ± 0.5
C: 8.4 ± 0.9
Physically active NR No NR NR NR
  1. I intervention, C control, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin. * indicates values of HbA1c demonstrated in changes (post-pre intervention and control) and not by baseline values