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Table 4 Professional athletes’ awareness of PPE use

From: Winning at all costs: a review of risk-taking behaviour and sporting injury from an occupational safety and health perspective

Study Awareness measured Sports Sex Mean age (years) Findings
Ma [42] Mouthguard Basketball M Not indicated Awareness was high (80.1%), but the usage rate was low.
Azodo et al. [29] Mouthguard Basketball M/F 23.1 There was a high prevalence of orofacial injuries and a low awareness of mouthguard use.
Berry et al. [30] Mouthguard Hockey Not indicated 21.0 13.3% of players wore mouthguards most of the time during games; 3.8% wore mouthguards most of the time during practices.
Onyeaso and Adegbesan [48] Mouthguard Soccer, judo, boxing, hockey M/F 38.1 81.0% coaches believed mouthguard should be worn at all times – during practice sessions and competitions;
19.0% coaches would prefer the use only during competitions.
Kuhl et al. [40] ASTM/SEI-approved helmet Equestrian M/F Not indicated 58.0% of riders strongly agreed on the use of helmets when jumping.
Tiwari et al. [57] Mouthguard Wrestling, karate judo, boxing, Wushu, fencing, taekwondo, hockey, canoeing and kayaking, rowing, sailing, horse riding, shooting M/F Not indicated 51.5% athletes were aware of mouthguards, but only 21.0% wore them.
Tulunoglu and Oezbek [58] Mouthguard Boxing, taekwondo M/F Not indicated 83.2% of participants knew the importance of using mouthguards.
  1. M male, F female, % percent, ASTM/SEI American Society for Testing and Materials/Safety Equipment Institute