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Table 3 Methodological quality of the included studies

From: Follow-up efficacy of physical exercise interventions on fall incidence and fall risk in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Methodological quality
Internal validity
1.1a 1.2a 1.3a 1.4a 1.5a 2.1Ab 2.1Bb 2.1 Cb 2.1Db 2.2Ab 2.2Bb 2.2Cb 2.2Db 2.2Eb 2.2Fb 2.2Gb 2.2Hb 3Ab 3Bb 3Cb 3Db Score
(%)
Ballard et al. [90] + + + + + + + / / + + + + + 79
Beyer et al. [50] + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + + + + 81
Fitzharris et al. [73] + + + + + + + + + / / + + 77
Freiberger et al. [82]a,b + + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + + 91
Halvarsson et al. [94] + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + + 82
Iliffe et al. [83]a,b + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 75
Kamide et al. [95] + + + + + + + / + + + + + + 81
Karinkanta et al. [51]a,b,c + + + + + + + / / + + + + 76
Li et al. [89] + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + 85
Liu-Ambrose et al. [96] + + + + + + + + + / + + + + + + + + + 94
Logan et al. [129] + + + + + + + + + + / + + + + 82
Logghe et al. [97] + + + + + + + + / / + + + 76
Lord et al. [101] + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + 82
Means et al. [86] + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + 73
Means et al. [98] + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + 83
Morgan et al. [84] + + + + + + + / / + + + + + + 72
Salminen et al. [130] + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 83
Suzuki et al. [99] + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 83
Taylor et al. [76]a,b + + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + + 91
Trombetti et al. [88] + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + 83
Uusi-Rasi et al. [87] + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + 73
Weerdesteyn et al. [100] + + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + 85
Whitehead et al. [85] + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 68
Yamada et al. [78] + + + + + + + + + / / + + + 80
Yamada et al. [79] + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + 86
Yamada et al. [77] + + + + + + + + + / / + + + + + + 89
Mean ± SD                       81 ± 6
Study Methodological quality
Statistical validity External validity Total score (%)
4a 5a Score (%) 6.1a 6.2a 7.1b 7.2b 7.3b 8Ab 8Bb 8Cb 8Db 8Eb 8Fb 8Gb 8Hb Score
(%)
Ballard et al. [90] + + 100 + + + + + + + + + + + 94 91
Beyer et al. [50] + + 100 + + + + + + + + + + + + + 100 94
Fitzharris et al. [73] + + 100 + + + + + 53 77
Freiberger et al. [82]a,b + 50 + + + + + + + + 57 66
Halvarsson et al. [94] + + 100 + + + + + + + + + + + + 72 85
Iliffe et al. [83]a,b + + 100 + + + + + + + + + + + + 72 82
Kamide et al. 2009 [95] + 50 + + + + + + + + + + + 72 68
Karinkanta et al. [51]a,b,c + 50 + + + + + + + + + + + 69 65
Li et al. [89] + 50 + + + + + + + + 63 66
Liu-Ambrose et al. [96] + + 100 + + + + + + + + + + + + + 75 90
Logan et al. [129] + + 100 + + + + + + + + 79 87
Logghe et al. [97] + 50 + + + + + 48 58
Lord et al. [101] + 50 + + + + + + + + 63 65
Means et al. et al. [86] + 50 + + + + + + + + + 66 63
Means et al. [98] + + 100 + + + + + + + + 84 89
Morgan et al. [84] + 50 + + + + + + + + 63 61
Salminen et al. [130] + 50 + + + + + + + + 84 72
Suzuki et al. [99] + 50 + + + + + + + + 63 65
Taylor et al. 2012a,b [76] + 50 + + + + + + + + 79 73
Trombetti et al. [88]a,b + 50 + + + + + + + + + + + 94 76
Uusi-Rasi et al. [87] + 50 + + + + + + + + + + + 94 72
Weerdesteyn et al. [100] + 50 + + + + + + + 59 65
Whitehead et al. [85] + 50 + + + + + + 46 55
Yamada et al. [78] + 50 + + + + + + 56 62
Yamada et al. [79] + 50 + + + + + + + + + + + 72 69
Yamada et al. [77] + + 100 + + + + + + + + + + + 94 94
Mean ± SD    67 ± 23               71 ± 14 73 ± 11
  1. Methodological quality: 1 Study design | 1.1 Number of falls | 1.2 Number of fallers | 1.3 Healthy older adults | 1.4 Follow-up ≥ 6 months | 1.5 Control group | 2 Methods | 2.1 Fall Incidence | 2.1 A fall definition | 2.1B Monthly diary |2.1C Reminder Calls| 2.1D Objective fall measure | 2.2 Intervention | 2.2A Physical exercises | 2.2B Group training under therapist supervision | 2.2C Exercise material for home training | 2.2D Controlling home visits by therapists | 2.2E Intervention duration ≥ 4 weeks | 2.2F At least twice weekly | 2.2G Session duration ≥ 15 min | 2.2H Reporting compliance | 3 Cofactors | 3A Previous fall history | 3B Reporting no exercise continuation during follow-up period | 3C Health status | 3D Cognitive status | 4 Appropriate statistical tests used | 5 Power analysis | 6 Eligibility | 6.1 Appropriate and representative participant sample | 6.2 Appropriate representation of the outcome variables | 7 Description experimental protocol | 7.1 Type of physical Intervention | 7.2 Exercise description | 7.3 Intervention duration in weeks, days and session time | 8 Description of the participant sample | 8A Age | 8B Sex | 8C Body height | 8D Body mass| 8E Activity level | 8F Health status | 8G Cognitive status | 8H Fall history. The single criteria were rated (“+” = point, “−” = no point, “/” = not included) and used to calculate the quality score for each category (i.e., internal, statistical, and external validity). The average of the three scores gives the total score. aA full point was assigned to each sub-category for the calculation of the score in the respective validity section ((assigned points/possible points)*100). bThe subcategories of the respective block were pooled to a single point (assigned points/possible points). The studies followed by the letters a or b or c mean that they include different intervention groups, and each letter resembles one intervention group