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Table 2 Measurement of physical activity outcome

From: The Effect of Physical Activity Interventions Comprising Wearables and Smartphone Applications on Physical Activity: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Study Physical activity outcome Outcome measurement instrument Timing of measurement Objective/subjective
Li et al. [43] MVPA, ≥ 4 METs (min/day) SenseWear Mini armband (research-based accelerometer) Baseline and 1 month Objective
Lyons et al. [44] Stepping time (min/day)
ActivPAL activity monitor Baseline and 12 weeks (and 6 weeks) Objective
Bickmore et al. [36] Steps/day Digital pedometer 12 months (and 2 months) Objective
Allen et al. [35] MVPA (hours/week) Stanford 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire Baseline and 6 months Subjective
Demeyer et al. [37] MPA (min/day)
ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer Baseline and 12 weeks Objective
Shin et al. [49] Kcal/day International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) Baseline and 12 weeks Subjective
Recio-Rodriguez et al. [47] MVPA (min/week)
ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer Baseline and 3 months Objective
Uhm et al. [50] MET/week International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) Baseline and 12 weeks Subjective
Glynn et al. [39] Steps/day Accupedo Pro Pedometer App Baseline and week 8 (and week 2) Objective
Fukuoka et al. [38] MPA (min/day)
Omron Active Style Pro HJA-350IT pedometer Baseline and 5 months (and every month) Objective
Safran Naimark et al. [48] PA (min/week) Questionnaire-based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Baseline and 14 weeks Subjective
Martin et al. [45] MVPA (min/day)
Fitbug Orb accelerometer Baseline and 5 weeks Objective
Walsh et al. [52] Steps/day Accupedo-Pro Pedometer App Baseline and 5 weeks Objective
Hartman et al. [41] MVPA (min/day) ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer Baseline (week before randomization) and 6 months Objective
Harries et al. [40] Steps/day Smartphone app bActive with a built-in accelerometer Continuously during the trial. Mean number of steps in the 6th week is used. Objective
Vorrink et al. [51] Steps/day SenseWear Mini armband (research-based accelerometer) Baseline and 12 months (and 3 months and 6 months) Objective
King et al. [42] MVPA (min/day) Smartphone-based accelerometer Unknown Objective
Paul et al. (2016) [46] Steps/day ActivPAL™ activity monitor Baseline (7 days before the start of the intervention) and the last 7 days of the intervention period Objective
  1. Kcal kilocalorie, MET metabolic equivalent of task, min minutes, MPA moderate physical activity, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, PA physical activity