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Table 2 Measurement of physical activity outcome

From: The Effect of Physical Activity Interventions Comprising Wearables and Smartphone Applications on Physical Activity: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Study

Physical activity outcome

Outcome measurement instrument

Timing of measurement

Objective/subjective

Li et al. [43]

MVPA, ≥ 4 METs (min/day)

SenseWear Mini armband (research-based accelerometer)

Baseline and 1 month

Objective

Lyons et al. [44]

Stepping time (min/day)

Steps/day

ActivPAL activity monitor

Baseline and 12 weeks (and 6 weeks)

Objective

Bickmore et al. [36]

Steps/day

Digital pedometer

12 months (and 2 months)

Objective

Allen et al. [35]

MVPA (hours/week)

Stanford 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire

Baseline and 6 months

Subjective

Demeyer et al. [37]

MPA (min/day)

Steps/day

ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer

Baseline and 12 weeks

Objective

Shin et al. [49]

Kcal/day

International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF)

Baseline and 12 weeks

Subjective

Recio-Rodriguez et al. [47]

MVPA (min/week)

Steps/day

ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer

Baseline and 3 months

Objective

Uhm et al. [50]

MET/week

International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF)

Baseline and 12 weeks

Subjective

Glynn et al. [39]

Steps/day

Accupedo Pro Pedometer App

Baseline and week 8 (and week 2)

Objective

Fukuoka et al. [38]

MPA (min/day)

Steps/day

Omron Active Style Pro HJA-350IT pedometer

Baseline and 5 months (and every month)

Objective

Safran Naimark et al. [48]

PA (min/week)

Questionnaire-based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)

Baseline and 14 weeks

Subjective

Martin et al. [45]

MVPA (min/day)

Steps/day

Fitbug Orb accelerometer

Baseline and 5 weeks

Objective

Walsh et al. [52]

Steps/day

Accupedo-Pro Pedometer App

Baseline and 5 weeks

Objective

Hartman et al. [41]

MVPA (min/day)

ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer

Baseline (week before randomization) and 6 months

Objective

Harries et al. [40]

Steps/day

Smartphone app bActive with a built-in accelerometer

Continuously during the trial. Mean number of steps in the 6th week is used.

Objective

Vorrink et al. [51]

Steps/day

SenseWear Mini armband (research-based accelerometer)

Baseline and 12 months (and 3 months and 6 months)

Objective

King et al. [42]

MVPA (min/day)

Smartphone-based accelerometer

Unknown

Objective

Paul et al. (2016) [46]

Steps/day

ActivPAL™ activity monitor

Baseline (7 days before the start of the intervention) and the last 7 days of the intervention period

Objective

  1. Kcal kilocalorie, MET metabolic equivalent of task, min minutes, MPA moderate physical activity, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, PA physical activity