Skip to main content

Table 4 Comparison of individual symptoms for athletes who sustained concussion in the early, mid, and late season

From: Initial symptom presentation after high school football-related concussion varies by time point in a season: an initial investigation

  Descriptive data Comparison between season timeb
  Early Mid Late F p valuea Early to mid Mid to late Early to late
Headache 182 (43.54) 898 (43.21) 58 (59.18) 4.87 0.01
Nausea 12 (2.87) 48 (2.31) 2 (2.04) 0.26 0.77
Vomiting 40 (9.57) 332 (16.00) 16 (16.33) 5.71 0.003
Balance 62 (14.83) 426 (20.50) 38 (38.78) 14.38 < 0.001 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.001
Dizziness 86 (20.57) 490 (23.58) 40 (40.82) 9.12 < 0.001 0.38 < 0.001 < 0.001
Fatigue 40 (9.57) 276 (13.28) 14 (14.29) 2.27 0.10
Falling asleep 58 (13.88) 400 (19.25) 32 (32.65) 9.63 < 0.001 0.03 0.003 < 0.001
Sleeping more 34 (8.14) 190 (9.14) 18 (18.37) 5.14 0.06
Sleeping less 30 (7.17) 190 (9.14) 14 (14.29) 2.54 0.08
Drowsiness 86 (20.57) 566 (27.23) 36 (36.73) 6.72 0.001 0.13 0.09 0.003
Light sensitivity 76 (18.18) 484 (23.29) 30 (30.61) 4.39 0.01
Noise sensitivity 70 (16.75) 480 (23.10) 32 (32.65) 7.12 0.001 0.01 0.07 0.002
Irritability 46 (11.00) 264 (12.70) 16 (16.33) 1.11 0.33
Sadness 30 (7.18) 178 (8.57) 14 (14.29) 2.57 0.08
Nervousness 8 (1.91) 104 (5.00) 8 (8.16) 5.23 0.01
More emotional 18 (4.31) 150 (7.21) 10 (10.20) 3.20 0.04
Numbness 22 (5.26) 82 (3.95) 6 (6.12) 1.19 0.31
Slowed down 52 (12.44) 448 (21.56) 38 (38.78) 19.14 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Mentally foggy 40 (9.57) 384 (18.48) 36 (36.73) 22.43 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Concentration 66 (15.79) 572 (27.53) 36 (36.73) 15.69 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.10 <0.001
Memory problems 28 (6.70) 360 (17.32) 24 (24.49) 17.75 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.14 < 0.001
Vision problems 38 (9.09) 246 (11.84) 20 (20.40) 5.00 0.01
  1. aIndicates significant p value based on Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels = 0.002
  2. bIndicates significant p value based on Tukey HSD alpha levels = 0.05
\