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Table 2 Comparison of post-injury outcome measures among athletes who sustained an early, mid, and late season concussion

From: Initial symptom presentation after high school football-related concussion varies by time point in a season: an initial investigation

Post-concussion outcome: mean (SD) Early season (n = 418) Midseason (n = 2078) Late season (n = 98) F p value η p 2c
Verbal memorya 83.13 (12.99) 83.35 (13.22) 81.76 (14.98) 1.55 0.21
Visual memorya 73.27 (12.96) 74.60 (14.63) 69.65 (15.18) 2.68 0.07
Visual motor speeda 35.86 (6.99) 36.21 (7.60) 35.51 (6.80) 0.55 0.58
Reaction timea 0.63 (0.12) 0.63 (0.12) 0.65 (0.13) 2.00 0.14
Total symptom scorea 6.77 (9.99) 9.31 (14.85) 13.10 (16.80) 15.40 < 0.001 0.01
Number of symptoms increasedb 2.68 (3.59) 3.61 (4.73) 5.70 (5.84) 16.40 < 0.001 0.01
  1. Italics indicates significant p value based on Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels = 0.008
  2. aEach comparison of outcome was controlled for age and respective baseline score in ANCOVA modeling; number of symptoms increased was from baseline report and therefore baseline number of symptoms was not included as a covariate
  3. bIncrease in number and severity of symptoms based on a previously validated cutoff score (2+ symptoms, increased 1+ point) to classify athletes as meaningfully changed from baseline [45]
  4. cPartial η2 interpretation for effect size; small = 0.01, medium = 0.06, large = 0.14
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