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Table 2 Characteristics of research studies evaluating athletic performance on intermittent exercise tasks

From: The Effect of Fluid Intake Following Dehydration on Subsequent Athletic and Cognitive Performance: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Citation Participants VO2 max Dh protocol (EX intensity); ambient temperature; duration Total REC (min) Dh trial BM loss (%) Fluid type Fluid assimilation time (min) Fluid intake (L kg BM lost−1) Intermittent exercise task Ambient temperature; RH; airflow Performance outcomes(s) Performance outcomes significantly affected (Hedges’ g)
Walsh et al. (1994b) [33] 6 M, endurance cyclists/triathletes 61.4 ± 4.4 EX (V); 30 °C; 60 min 15 1.8 NaCl + NNS 65 0.90 aIST NS Max. velocity; lower limb force No effect
Maxwell et al. (1999) [65] 11 M, untrained NS EX (M); 32 °C; 48 min 120 1.5 NaCl + NNS 208 1.55 bMART 32 °C; 73% Sprint duration ↑ (0.19)
Devlin et al. (2001a) [71] 7 M, sub-elite cricketers 56 ± 6 EX; 28 °C; 60 min 0 2.8 Water 60 0.80 cMMRT 16 °C; 60% 20-m shuttle runs ↑ (0.30)
Cheuvont et al. (2006) [51] 8 M, physically active 52 ± 6 HT Testing at 0, 30 and 60 2.7 Water 185–240 1.00 15 s WAnT 22 °C; 65% Abs. mean PO; Rel. mean PO;
Abs. PPO; Rel. PPO; rate of fatigue
No effect
Edwards et al. (2007a) [58] 11 M, moderately active soccer players 50.9 ± 4.0 EX; 19-25 °C; 90 min 0 2.4 Water 90 0.80 dYo-Yo Test NS Distance covered ↑ (ES unknown)
Maxwell et al. (2009a) [22] 8 M, unacclimated, game players 59.9 ± 8.0 EX (H/M); 36 °C; 90 min >12 h 3.9 Water >12 h 1.50 eIST 36 °C; 49% TW; Abs. PPO; Rel. PPO
(during the IST, RSB 1 and RSB 2)
TW (0.97) and Abs. PPO (0.79) ↑ on RSB 2 only.
Maxwell et al. (2009b) [22] 8 M, unacclimated, game players 59.9 ± 8.0 EX (H/M); 36 °C; 90 min >12 h 3.9 Water >12 h 1.00 eIST 36 °C; 49% TW; Abs. PPO; Rel. PPO
(during the IST, RSB 1 and RSB 2)
No effect
Kraft et al. (2011) [75] 10 M NS WI 45 3.0 Water 158–178 1.00 fIST NS Abs. mean PO; Abs. PPO;
s >90 rpm; Rate of fatigue
No effect
Owen et al. (2013a) [59] 13 M, semi-professional soccer players 54 ± 3 EX; 19 °C; 105 min 5 2.5 Water 110 0.89 dYo-Yo Test 19 °C; 59% Distance covered No effect
Owen et al. (2013b) [59] 13 M, semi-professional soccer players 54 ± 3 EX; 19 °C; 105 min 5 2.5 Water 110 0.51 dYo-Yo Test 19 °C; 59% Distance covered No effect
  1. Exercise intensity is described as high (H), vigorous (V) or moderate (M), in accordance with classifications outlined by Norton et al. [86]. Values are Hedges’ g effect sizes
  2. Abs. absolute, Dh dehydration, ES effect size, EX exercise, HT heat, IST intermittent sprint test, MART maximal anaerobic running test, Max. maximum, MMRT maximal multistage running test, NNS non-nutritive sweetener, NS not specified, PO power output, PPO peak power output, RH relative humidity, Rel. relative, Total REC time from completing the dehydration protocol to commencing the subsequent task, TW total work, WAnT Wingate Anaerobic Test, WI warm water immersion
  3. aThe intermittent sprint test (IST) comprised of five 5-s sprints at 3-min intervals on a cycle ergometer
  4. bThe maximal anaerobic running test (MART) involved repeated 20-s runs on a treadmill, at increasing intensities, with 100-s passive recovery between runs until volitional exhaustion
  5. cThe maximal multistage running test (MMRT) involved repeated 20-m runs between two points, at increasing intensity
  6. dThe Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test is a soccer-specific performance test that comprises of 20-m shuttle runs separated by 10 s jog recovery. Running speed during the test is incremental, and maximal performance is indicated by total distance covered
  7. eThe IST comprised of a 36-min repeated sprint exercise divided into 2-min periods of a 4-s sprint and 100 s of active recovery (35% VO2 max) and 16 s passive rest. A repeated sprint bout (RSB) involving 5 × 2 s sprints with 18 s active recovery was also completed after the 8th and 16th sprints (RSB 1 and RSB 2). All testing was completed on a cycle ergometer
  8. fThe IST comprised of a 3-min warm up followed by 6 × 15 s maximal sprints separated by 30 s active recovery on a cycle ergometer