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Table 3 Definitions and examples of heuristics in RTS

From: A Framework for Clinicians to Improve the Decision-Making Process in Return to Sport

Heuristics Definition Example Possible deviations from normative model
Availability People infer the probability of an outcome based on how readily it comes to mind [88]. A clinician assesses the risk of injury of an athlete by recalling the recent occurrences within the team. 1. Depending on whether the clinician is familiar with the injury and when it last occurred, there may be recall bias.
2. The subjective probability of an injury may rise temporarily when the clinician sees there are multiple players on the injured list.
Representativeness People categorise by matching the similarity of an object or incident to an existing one [88]. A clinician has an impression that a female athlete demonstrating knee valgus movement on a jump and land task will sustain a lower limb injury. Evidence for screening tests in predicting injury is limited [89]. The clinician judgement may be insensitive to the reliability and predictability of the test.
Anchoring-adjustment People estimate based on an initial value (anchoring) and adjust to yield the final answer (adjustment) [88]. A clinician prioritises information that supports his or her initial judgement of the estimated time to RTS and makes adjustments based on the initial value. A clinician may stick to the initial hypothesis of the days required for RTS even if new evidence suggested conflicting information. Even if the clinician decides to adjust the estimation, it would be biased toward the initial value.