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Table 2 Training characteristics of included studies on load autoregulation

From: The Effect of Load and Volume Autoregulation on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Study Group Prescription Length (weeks) Frequency (days/week) Sets difference Repetitions difference Average total volume difference Average relative intensity difference Outcomes of interest
Arede et al. [23] PBT Exercises: Back squat, bench press, hip thrust, shoulder press
Week 1–4: 3 sets per exercise
Week 5–8: 4 sets per exercise
PBT group: 10 repetitions to failure
RPE group: 7 repetitions to 7 RPE with set-to-set load adjustments of 2% increase/decrease per 0.5 RPE rating below/above RPE target
8 2 Matched PBT: 2240
RPE: 1568
Greater for PBT No significant difference 1RM back squat; 1RM bench press
RPE
Banyard et al. [22] PBT All sessions: 5 sets of 5 repetitions in back squat at loads ranging from ~ 59 to 85% of 1RM
PBT group: Relative load based on pre-test 1RM
VBT group: Sessional target velocity from individualized load-velocity profile and mean velocity table corresponding to identical relative load as PBT group with set-to-set load adjustments of 5% increase/decrease per 0.06 m.s−1 below/above the target velocity of all repetitions average velocity within set
6 3 Matched Matched No significant difference No significant difference 1RM back squat
VBT
Dorrell et al. [15] PBT Integrated periodization structure comprised of compound exercises (back squat, bench press, deadlift, overhead press) and supplementary exercises
PBT group: Relative load based on pre-test 1RM
VBT group: Group velocity zones established from published data and pre-test 1RM corresponding to identical relative loads as PBT group with the integration of velocity stops at 20% below the target group velocity zone and set-to-set load adjustments if velocity outside target group velocity zone
6 2 Matched Intended to be matched Average relative volume load: Significantly greater in back squat for PBT (p = 0.033)
Significantly greater in bench press for PBT (p = 0.019)
No significant difference in deadlift (p = 0.398)
Significantly greater in overhead press for PBT (p = 0.049)
NR 1RM back squat; 1RM bench press; 1RM deadlift; 1RM overhead press
VBT
Dorrell et al. [18] Group VBT Integrated periodization structure comprised of back squat and supplementary exercises
Group VBT group: Group load-velocity profiles established from pre-test 1RM with target velocity corresponding to prescribed relative loads with the integration of velocity stops if a repetition velocity was below the target group velocity zone and set-to-set load adjustments based on group load-velocity profiles
Individualized VBT group: Individualized load-velocity profiles established from pre-test 1RM with target velocity corresponding to prescribed relative loads with the integration of velocity stops if a repetition velocity was below the target individualized velocity zone and set-to-set load adjustments based on individualized load-velocity profiles
6 2 Matched Intended to be matched Average total volume load: No significant difference (p = 0.632) NR 1RM back squat
Individualized VBT
Graham and Cleather [20] PBT Session 1: Front squat
Session 2: Back squat
Week 1–4: 3 sets of 10 repetitions per exercise
Week 5–8: 4 sets of 5 repetitions per exercise
Week 9–12: 3 sets of 3 repetitions per exercise
PBT group: Relative load based on pre-test 1RM corresponding to 65, 67.5, 70, 72.5, 77.5, 80, 82.5, 85, 87.5, 90, 92.5, and 95% of 1RM for each single respective week from week 1–12
RPE group: Relative load intended to correspond similarly to PBT group and corresponding to 6, 7, 8, 9, 6, 7, 8, 9, 8, 9, 10, maximum RPE each single respective week from week 1–12
12 2 Matched Matched Average weekly volume load: No significant difference in combined back squat and front squat (p = 0.088) Significantly greater in back squat for RPE (p = 0.006)
Significantly greater in front squat for RPE (p < 0.001)
1RM back squat; 1RM front squat
RPE
Helms et al. [21] PBT Integrated periodization structure comprised of back squat and bench press
Week 1 and 8: 2 sets per exercise
Week 2–7: 3 sets per exercise
PBT group: Relative load based on pre-test 1RM corresponding to 65–92.5% of 1RM
RPE group: Relative load intended to correspond similarly to PBT group and corresponding to 5–10 RPE with set-to-set load adjustments of 2% increase/decrease per 0.5 RPE rating below/above RPE target
8 3 Matched Matched Average relative volume load: No significant difference in back squat (p = 0.66)
Significantly greater in bench press for RPE (p = 0.03)
No significant difference in back squat (p = 0.49)
Significantly greater in bench press for RPE (p < 0.001)
1RM back squat; 1RM bench press; MT vastus lateralis at 50%; MT vastus lateralis at 70%; MT pectoralis major
RPE
Orange et al. [19] PBT Exercises: Back squat and supplementary exercises
Session 1: Back squat at 60% of 1RM
Session 2: Back squat at 80% of 1RM
PBT group: Relative load based on pre-test 1RM
VBT group: Sessional target velocity from individualized load-velocity profile corresponding to identical relative load as PBT group with set-to-set load adjustments of 5% increase/decrease per 0.06 m.s−1 below/above target velocity of first repetition velocity within set
7 2 Matched Matched No significant difference No significant difference 1RM back squat
VBT
Shattock and Tee [16] Group 1 Comprised of compound exercises and supplementary exercises
Week 1–6: Maximal-strength block
Week 7–12: Strength-speed block
VBT prescription: Group velocity zones established from published data with target velocity corresponding to prescribed relative loads with set-to-set load adjustments if velocity outside target group velocity zone
RPE prescription: Relative load intended to correspond similarly to VBT prescription with load dictated via RPE and set-to-set load adjustments if RPE outside target RPE zone
12 Week 1–6 = 4
Week 7–12 = 3
Matched Matched No significant difference NR 1RM back squat; 1RM bench press
Group 2
  1. MT muscle thickness, m.s−1 m per second, NR not reported, PBT percentage-based training, RPE repetitions in reserve-based rating of perceived exertion training, VBT velocity-based training, 1RM one-repetition maximum