From: Physiological Responses to Low-Volume Interval Training in Women
References | Sample size (M/W) | Population | Intervention | Outcome | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Descriptives | Age (yr) | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | \({\dot{\textbf{V}}\textbf{O}}_{\bf{2}}\)peak (ml/kg/min) | Menstrual cycle phase; HC use | Interval training protocol | Duration (wk); frequency (sessions/wk); exercise mode | Sex-specific results | ||
Astorino et al. [68] | 11/9 | Rec active |
M: ~ 25 W: ~ 25 |
~ 25 ~ 22 |
~ 46 ~ 41 | NR; NR | 4–6 × 30 s 'all out' sprints, 5 min recovery |
2–3 wks; 2–3 sessions/wk; cycling | ↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W |
Bagley et al. [10] | 24/17 | Healthy |
M: ~ 38 W: ~ 41 |
~ 26 ~ 22 |
~ 43 ~ 34 | NR; NR | 4 × 20 s 'all out' sprints, 2 min recovery |
12 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in W > M (p = 0.009) ↔ FPG or FPI in M and W ↔ HOMA-IR in M and W |
Bonafiglia et al. [72] | 9/12 |
Healthy, rec active |
M: ~ 20 W: ~ 20 |
~ 25 ~ 23 |
~ 45 ~ 39 | NR; NR | 8 × 20 s at ~ 170% \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak, 10 s rest |
3 wks; 4 sessions/wk; cycling | ↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W |
Bostad et al. [75] | 6/9 |
Healthy, untrained | M/W: ~ 21 | ~ 24 | ~ 37 |
Uncontrolled; 4 participants using OC | 3 × 20 s ‘all out’ sprints, 2 min recovery |
12 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | ↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W (M > W, p < 0.01) |
Esbjörnsson Liljedahl et al. [163] | 6/10 |
Healthy, rec active |
M: ~ 26 W: ~ 25 |
~ 23 ~ 22 |
NR NR | NR; NR | 3 × 30 s 'all out' sprints, 20 min rest |
4 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | ↔ CS maximal activity in M and W |
Gillen et al. [53] | 7/7 |
Obese, inactive |
M: ~ 29 W: ~ 30 |
~ 31 ~ 29 |
~ 31 ~ 28 | Uncontrolled; NR | 3 × 20 s 'all out' sprints, 2 min recovery |
6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W ↓ 24 h blood glucose mean and AUC in M and ↔ in W (p < 0.05) ↔ FPG in M and W ↓ FPI in M and W ↓ HOMA-IR in M and W ↑ CS maximal activity in M and W ↑ COXIV protein content in M and W |
Metcalfe et al. [69] | 7/8 |
Healthy, inactive |
M: ~ 26 W: ~ 24 |
~ 24 ~ 23 |
~ 36 ~ 33 | Trials separated by ~ 8 wks; NR | 2 × 20 s 'all out' sprints, ~ 3 min recovery |
6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W ↑ OGTT insulin sensitivity in M and ↔ in W |
Metcalfe et al. [71] | 17/18 |
Healthy, inactive |
M: ~ 33 W: ~ 36 |
~ 25 ~ 24 |
~ 39 ~ 32 | Trials separated by ~ 8 wks; NR | 2 × 20 s 'all out' sprints, ~ 3 min recovery |
6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W ↔ OGTT glucose or insulin AUC in M and W |
Phillips et al. [76] | 64/72 |
Impaired glucose tolerance and/or BMI > 27, inactive | M/W: ~ 36 | ~ 32 | ~ 27 | NR; NR | 5 × 1 min at 125% \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak, 1 min recovery |
6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W [M > W for absolute (L/min), p < 0.001; no difference in relative (%), p > 0.05] ↓ HOMA-IR in M and W |
Scalzo et al. [70] | 11/10 |
Healthy, rec active |
M: ~ 22 W: ~ 23 |
~ 22 ~ 23 |
~ 43 ~ 40 | Uncontrolled; 1 participant using OC |
4–8 × 30 s, 4 min recovery |
3 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W > MPS in mitochondrial fraction in M versus W (trend p = 0.056) > MPS in cluster of mitochondrial proteins in M versus W (p < 0.001) ↑ CS protein content in M and W ↔ COXIV protein content in M and W |
Søgaard et al. [73] & Chrøis et al. [138] | 11/11 | Healthy, inactive |
M: ~ 63 W: ~ 63 |
~ 31 ~ 31 |
~ 27 ~ 23 | NR; NR | 5 × 1 min at ~ 125% PPO, 1.5 min recovery |
6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W ↑ Clamp insulin sensitivity in M and W (M > W trend p = 0.068) ↔ OGTT glucose or insulin AUC in M and W ↔ FPG or FPI in M and W ↓ HbA1c in M and ↔ in W (p < 0.001) ↑ CS maximal activity in M and W ↑ ETC protein content in M and W ↑ Mitochondrial respiratory capacity in M and ↔ in W (p < 0.001) |
Weber et al. [74] | 7/7 |
Healthy, untrained |
M: ~ 24 W: ~ 23 |
~ 26 ~ 23 |
~ 44 ~ 40 | Tested in follicular phase; NR | 3 × 2 min at ~ 100–120% of \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak, 6 min recovery |
8 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling |
↑ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and ↔ in W (p < 0.05) |