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# Table 2 Sex-based comparisons of outcomes related to cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and mitochondrial content following low-volume interval training

From: Physiological Responses to Low-Volume Interval Training in Women

References | Sample size (M/W) | Population | Intervention | Outcome | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Descriptives | Age (yr) | BMI (kg/m | \({\dot{\textbf{V}}\textbf{O}}_{\bf{2}}\)peak (ml/kg/min) | Menstrual cycle phase; HC use | Interval training protocol | Duration (wk); frequency (sessions/wk); exercise mode | Sex-specific results | ||

Astorino et al. [68] | 11/9 | Rec active | M: ~â€‰25 W: ~â€‰25 | ~â€‰25 ~â€‰22 | ~â€‰46 ~â€‰41 | NR; NR | 4â€“6â€‰Ã—â€‰30Â s 'all out' sprints, 5Â min recovery | 2â€“3 wks; 2â€“3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W |

Bagley et al. [10] | 24/17 | Healthy | M: ~â€‰38 W: ~â€‰41 | ~â€‰26 ~â€‰22 | ~â€‰43 ~â€‰34 | NR; NR | 4â€‰Ã—â€‰20Â s 'all out' sprints, 2Â min recovery | 12 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in Wâ€‰>â€‰M ( â†” FPG or FPI in M and W â†” HOMA-IR in M and W |

Bonafiglia et al. [72] | 9/12 | Healthy, rec active | M: ~â€‰20 W: ~â€‰20 | ~â€‰25 ~â€‰23 | ~â€‰45 ~â€‰39 | NR; NR | 8â€‰Ã—â€‰20Â s at ~â€‰170% \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak, 10Â s rest | 3 wks; 4 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W |

Bostad et al. [75] | 6/9 | Healthy, untrained | M/W: ~â€‰21 | ~â€‰24 | ~â€‰37 | Uncontrolled; 4 participants using OC | 3â€‰Ã—â€‰20Â s â€˜all outâ€™ sprints, 2Â min recovery | 12 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W (Mâ€‰>â€‰W, |

EsbjÃ¶rnssonÂ Liljedahl et al. [163] | 6/10 | Healthy, rec active | M: ~â€‰26 W: ~â€‰25 | ~â€‰23 ~â€‰22 | NR NR | NR; NR | 3â€‰Ã—â€‰30Â s 'all out' sprints, 20Â min rest | 4 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†” CS maximal activity in M and W |

Gillen et al. [53] | 7/7 | Obese, inactive | M: ~â€‰29 W: ~â€‰30 | ~â€‰31 ~â€‰29 | ~â€‰31 ~â€‰28 | Uncontrolled; NR | 3â€‰Ã—â€‰20Â s 'all out' sprints, 2Â min recovery | 6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W â†“ 24Â h blood glucose mean and AUC in M and â†” in W ( â†” FPG in M and W â†“ FPI in M and W â†“ HOMA-IR in M and W â†‘ CS maximal activity in M and W â†‘ COXIV protein content in M and W |

Metcalfe et al. [69] | 7/8 | Healthy, inactive | M: ~â€‰26 W: ~â€‰24 | ~â€‰24 ~â€‰23 | ~â€‰36 ~â€‰33 | Trials separated by ~â€‰8 wks; NR | 2â€‰Ã—â€‰20Â s 'all out' sprints, ~â€‰3Â min recovery | 6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W â†‘ OGTT insulin sensitivity in M and â†” in W |

Metcalfe et al. [71] | 17/18 | Healthy, inactive | M: ~â€‰33 W: ~â€‰36 | ~â€‰25 ~â€‰24 | ~â€‰39 ~â€‰32 | Trials separated by ~â€‰8 wks; NR | 2â€‰Ã—â€‰20Â s 'all out' sprints, ~â€‰3Â min recovery | 6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W â†” OGTT glucose or insulin AUC in M and W |

Phillips et al. [76] | 64/72 | Impaired glucose tolerance and/or BMIâ€‰>â€‰27, inactive | M/W: ~â€‰36 | ~â€‰32 | ~â€‰27 | NR; NR | 5â€‰Ã—â€‰1Â min at 125% \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak, 1Â min recovery | 6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W [Mâ€‰>â€‰W for absolute (L/min), â†“ HOMA-IR in M and W |

Scalzo et al. [70] | 11/10 | Healthy, rec active | M: ~â€‰22 W: ~â€‰23 | ~â€‰22 ~â€‰23 | ~â€‰43 ~â€‰40 | Uncontrolled; 1 participant using OC | 4â€“8â€‰Ã—â€‰30Â s, 4Â min recovery | 3 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W >â€‰MPS in mitochondrial fraction in M versus W (trend â€‰>â€‰MPS in cluster of mitochondrial proteins in M versus W ( â†‘ CS protein content in M and W â†” COXIV protein content in M and W |

SÃ¸gaard et al. [73] & ChrÃ¸is et al. [138] | 11/11 | Healthy, inactive | M: ~â€‰63 W: ~â€‰63 | ~â€‰31 ~â€‰31 | ~â€‰27 ~â€‰23 | NR; NR | 5â€‰Ã—â€‰1Â min at ~â€‰125% PPO, 1.5Â min recovery | 6 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and W â†‘ Clamp insulin sensitivity in M and W (Mâ€‰>â€‰W trend â†” OGTT glucose or insulin AUC in M and W â†” FPG or FPI in M and W â†“ HbA1c in M and â†” in W ( â†‘ CS maximal activity in M and W â†‘ ETC protein content in M and W â†‘ Mitochondrial respiratory capacity in M and â†” in W ( |

Weber et al. [74] | 7/7 | Healthy, untrained | M: ~â€‰24 W: ~â€‰23 | ~â€‰26 ~â€‰23 | ~â€‰44 ~â€‰40 | Tested in follicular phase; NR | 3â€‰Ã—â€‰2Â min at ~â€‰100â€“120% of \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak, 6Â min recovery | 8 wks; 3 sessions/wk; cycling | â†‘ \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak in M and â†” in W ( |