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Table 1 Summary of adaptations related to cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and mitochondrial content following common low-volume interval training protocols in women

From: Physiological Responses to Low-Volume Interval Training in Women

Protocol Training duration
2–4 weeks 5–11 weeks 12–16 weeks
Repeated Wingate SIT (3–8 × 30 s) \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [44, 68, 70, 161] \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [47, 54, 67] \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [55]
  ↓ HbA1c [162
↔ HbA1c [55]
↔ HbA1c [55]
↑ CS protein content [70]
↔ CS maximal activity [163]
↔ COXIV protein content [70]
  
HIIT
(10–12 × 1 min)
\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [46, 49, 64, 79]
\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [164]
\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [49, 50, 165] \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [49]
  ↔ OGTT insulin sensitivity [50]
↓ HOMA-IR [166]
↓ HOMA-IR [110]
  ↑ CS maximal activity [50]
↑ COX activity [121]
 
Repeated sprint SIT
(6–20 s efforts)
 \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [60, 167] \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [51, 61, 63, 65, 66, 168]
   ↓ HOMA-IR [61]
↔ HOMA-IR [65, 66]
↓ HbA1c [100]
↔ HbA1c [66]
Reduced-volume SIT
(≤ 10 min session)
\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [62, 72]
\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [75]
\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [52, 53, 69, 71, 75] \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [10, 75]
  ↔ OGTT insulin sensitivity [69, 71]
↔ 24 h glucose mean or AUC [53]
↓ HOMA-IR [53]
↔ HOMA-IR [10]
  ↑ CS maximal activity [53]
↑ COXIV protein content [53]
 
Reduced-volume HIIT (5 × 1 min)  \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak [73, 76]  
  ↔ OGTT glucose and insulin AUC [73]
↓ HOMA-IR [76]
↔ HbA1c [73]
 
  ↑ mitochondrial complex I, II, III, IV and V protein content [138]
↑ CS maximal activity [138]
 
  1. Studies were conducted in women who were classified as healthy [10, 46, 47, 49, 52, 54, 65, 69,70,71,72, 75, 79, 161], with overweight/obesity [44, 50, 51, 53, 55, 60,61,62,63, 66, 67, 73, 76, 100, 110, 121, 138, 162, 164, 167, 168] and/or type 2 diabetes [100, 162]. For transparency, the same cohort of women was examined in the following pairs of references: [50, 121] and [73, 138]. The symbol (†) denotes when a finding has only been documented in a study comparing responses between sexes and is based on a main effect of time for both men and women. Abbreviations: increase; decrease; ↔ no change; AUC area under the curve; COXIV cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV; CS citrate synthase; HbA1c glycated hemoglobin; HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; OGTT oral glucose tolerance test; \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)peak peak oxygen uptake