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Table 2 Tackler and Ball Carrier HIAs for different contacts with opponent’s body

From: A Case–Control Study of Tackle-Based Head Injury Assessment (HIA) Risk Factors in the National Rugby League

  HIA events Propensity (HIAs per 1000 events) 95% CI Incidence (matches per event)
Tackler HIAs as a function of tackler's head contact with ball carrier
Head 58 10.31 7.96–13.33 6.93
Shoulder 66 0.64 0.5–0.81 6.09
Hip 47 2.91 2.18–3.87 8.55
Forearm 5 0.22 0.09–0.52 80.40
Elbow 25 99.50 67.23–147.25 16.08
Arm 7 2.14 1.02–4.49 57.43
Hand 14 3.36 1.98–5.66 28.71
Torso 3 0.03 0.01–0.1 134.00
Thigh 8 1.68 0.83–3.35 50.25
Knee 17 56.38 35.05–90.7 23.65
Boot 12 79.60 45.2–140.16 33.50
Playing surface 5 99.50 41.41–239.06 80.40
Buttocks 6 10.85 4.87–24.16 67.00
Back 8 0.23 0.11–0.45 50.25
Unidentifiable 2    
Ball carrier HIAs as a function of ball carrier's head contact with tackler
Head 27 5.60 3.83–8.16 14.89
Shoulder 49 0.47 0.35–0.62 8.20
Hip 3 3.98 1.28–12.34 134.00
Forearm 9 8.96 4.65–17.21 44.67
Elbow 1 19.90 2.8–141.28 402.00
Arm 30 0.91 0.63–1.3 13.40
Hand 6 0.17 0.07–0.37 67.00
Torso 10 0.10 0.05–0.17 40.20
Thigh 2 2.84 0.71–11.36 201.00
Knee 5 3.43 1.42–8.24 80.40
Boot 1 19.90 2.8–141.28 402.00
Playing surface 18    
Buttocks 0 0.00   
Back 0 0.00   
Ball 0 0.00   
Lower leg 1    
Unidentifiable 1    
  1. CI: confidence interval; HIA: head injury assessment