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Table 5 Changes of haematological variables related to various forms of chronic training

From: Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors Subjects Interventions [Hb] Ret% OFFs Hct PV
Endurance training        
Spodaryk [38] Various sports (n = 39) Haematological and iron-related parameters were measured at rest in 39 male athletes from the Polish team who participated in the 1988 Seoul Olympics. The athletes were divided into two groups: endurance-trained subjects (EN: cyclists, canoeists and rowers) and strength-trained subjects (ST: wrestlers and judoka) Lower (EN) Higher (EN)
Bejder et al. [39] Cyclists (n = 11) Eleven high-level competitive cyclists were investigated for 3 weeks. After initial measurements in week 1 (T1), training load was increased ~ 250% in week 2 (T2) followed by a reversion to the baseline training load in week 3 (T3). PV and haematological variables were determined frequently during all weeks ↓ − 6% (T2) ↑ + 15% (T2) ↓ − 16% (T2) ↓ − 5% (T2) ↑ + 10% (T2)
Green et al. [40] Recreational athletes (n = 8) Eight healthy, active but untrained males volunteered for the training study. The training program involved 8 weeks of cycle exercise, with each training session lasting for 2 h and with the intensity initially set at 62% of each subject’s VO2max. Training was performed on a 3-l-3 cycle, with exercise conducted for 3 consecutive days followed by 1 d of inactivity and another 3 consecutive days of exercise ↓ − 4% (4 weeks) = (NS) ↓ − 5% (4 weeks) ↑ + 14% (4 weeks)
Montero et al. [41] Untrained athletes (n = 9) Nine healthy, untrained volunteers underwent supervised endurance training consisting of 3–4 × 60 min cycle ergometry sessions per week for 8 weeks. Haematological markers were determined before and at weeks + 2 (T1), + 4 (T2) and + 8 (T3) of training ↓ − 8% (T1) = (NS) ↓ − 7% (T1) ↑ + 16% (T1)
Apnea training        
Revelli et al. [42] Divers (n = 6) Six scuba divers were tested before, during and after a 14-d Guinness saturation dive (8–10 m). During the dive, athletes breathed air at 1.8–2 ATA under the control of a team of physicians. Serum parameters were measured before (T0), during (T1, T2) and after the dive (T3, T4) = (NS) ↓ − 44% (T3) ↓ − 6% (T2)
  1. Numbers represent the relative changes during the most significant measurement: haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocytes percentage (Ret%), OFF-Score (OFFS), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV). Values in italics correspond to absolute variations