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Table 3 Changes of haematological variables related to prolonged and multiday events in ambient conditions

From: Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors Subjects Interventions [Hb] Ret% OFFs Hct PV
Prolonged exercise in normal ambient conditions        
Miller, Beharry et al. [26] Triathletes (n = 19) Complete blood count tests were conducted on 19 Ironman triathletes before and after an Ironman triathlon to characterise changes in haematological parameters ↓ (2 d) ↓ (2 d) ↓ (2 d) ↓ (2 d) ↑ + 16% (2 d)
Schumacher et al. [27] Cyclists (n = 39) Twenty-three male professional cyclists and 16 inactive control subjects were investigated during a 5 d road cycling stage race at sea level. Samples were obtained every morning prior to the race and between + 1 and + 3 h after the end of each stage ↓ − 6% (5 d) = (NS) ↓ − 15% (4 d) ↓ − 5% (4 d) ↑ + 5% (5 d)
Fallon et al. [28] Runners (n = 9) Blood samples were obtained from seven male and two female participants in a 1600 km ultramarathon foot race before (T1), after + 4 d (T2) and + 11 d (T3) of running and at the end of the race (T4) ↓ − 10% (T3) ↑ + 63% (T3) ↑ + 17% (T3)
Mørkeberg et al. [29] Cyclists (n = 28) From December 2006 to November 2007, 374 blood samples and 287 urine samples were obtained from 28 elite male cyclists from the Danish cycling team, Team CSC. Seven riders were measured once before the race and twice during the Tour de France ↓ − 12% (19 d) = (NS) ↓ (19 d) ↓ (19 d) ↑ (19 d)
Voss et al. [30] Cyclists (n = 12) Twelve highly trained cyclists tapered for 3 d before 6 d of simulated intense stage racing. Samples were taken in the morning and afternoon ↓ − 13% (8 d) = (NS) ↓ (8 d) ↑ + 24% (8 d)
Corsetti et al. [31] Cyclists (n = 9) Nine professional cyclists engaged in the 2011 Giro d’Italia stage race. Haematological parameters were measured d − 1 (pre-race), d + 12 and d + 22 during the race ↓ − 9% (12 d) = (NS) ↓ − 7% (12 d) ↑ + 2% (12 d)
Lombardi, Lanteri, Fiorella et al. [32] Cyclists (n = 253) The study population was comprised of male professional cyclists competing in the 2010 (n = 144) and 2012 (n = 109) GiroBio 10-d stage races. Blood samples were taken before the start of the race (T1), at mid-race (T2) and at the end of the race (T3). Results are the average of the two races ↓ − 9% (T2) ↓ − 6% (T2) ↓↑ (T2) (T3) ↓↑ (T2) (T3)
↑ + 15% (T3)
  1. Numbers represent the relative changes during the most significant measurement: haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocytes percentage (Ret%), OFF-Score (OFFS), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV). Values in italics correspond to absolute variations