Skip to main content

Table 11 Changes of haematological variables related to pre-analytical variations

From: Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors Subjects Interventions [Hb] Ret% OFFs Hct PV
Pre-analytical factors        
Robinson et al. [73] Track and field athletes (n = 3683) Reference ranges in top‐level track and field athletes were determined for biomarkers of altered erythropoiesis considering various factors such as gender, age, endurance or non‐endurance disciplines, detailed sport disciplines, the origin of the athletes (African vs non-African) and the time of blood sampling: morning (T1), afternoon (T2) and evening (T3) ↓ (T2) = (NS) ↓ (T2) (T3)
↓ (T3)
Sennels et al. [78] Recreational athletes (n = 24) Venous blood samples were obtained under standardised circumstances from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 h for a total of nine samples ↑ + 3% (12:00) ↑ + 5% (12:00) *Ret count ↑ + 3% (12:00)
Kuipers et al. [79] Endurance + Recreational athletes (n = 7) In seven subjects in separate experiments, 500 mL of saline were infused around 8 a.m., and blood variables were measured before and every hour thereafter until 7 h after infusion ↓ − 5% (1 h) = (NS) ↓ − 4% (1 h)
Bejder, Hoffmann et al. [80] Recreational athletes (n = 20) Twenty subjects received rhEPO for 3 weeks. After 10 d of rhEPO washout, 10 subjects ingested a 1000 mL bolus of water. Blood variables were measured + 20, + 40, + 60 and + 80 min after ingestion ↓ − 3% (60 min) = (NS) ↑ − 4% (40 min) ↑ + 4% (60 min)
Astolfi, Schumacher et al. [13] Cyclists + Divers + Recreational athletes (n = 38) Ten successive venous blood samples from 38 subjects were collected: after 10 min of normalised activity (B1), after 10 min seated (B2, typical reference sample in an anti-doping context), after a 50 m walk (B3), after an additional 5 and 10 min in a seated position (B4 and B5) and finally after 5–30 min in a supine position (B6-B10) ↑ + 3% (B1) = (NS) ↑ + 4% (B1) ↓ (B1)
Schumacher et al. [81] Endurance athletes (n = 15) Fifteen endurance athletes submitted ABP blood samples in the morning before (T1) and after arrival (T2) on an 8 h flight. Two additional samples were obtained in the morning and the evening 3 d after travel. Twelve nontraveling subjects served as controls ↓ − 0.5 g·dl−1 (T2) = (NS) ↓ (T2)
Alsaadi et al. [82] Recreational athletes (n = 11) Nine healthy, physically active subjects were tested twice daily—in the morning (T1) and afternoon (T2)—for 2 d before and 3 d into the celebration of Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents ↓ − 0.4 = (NS)
↓ − 0.3 g·dl−1 (T1/T2)
  1. Numbers represent the relative changes during the most significant measurement: haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocytes percentage (Ret%), OFF-Score (OFFS), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV). Values in italics correspond to absolute variations