Skip to main content

Table 10 Changes in haematological variables related to athletes’ characteristics

From: Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors Subjects Interventions [Hb] Ret% OFFs Hct PV
Genetic characteristics        
Robinson et al. [73] Track and field athletes (n = 3683) Reference ranges in top‐level track and field athletes were determined for biomarkers of altered erythropoiesis considering various factors such as gender (M/F), age, endurance (E) or non‐endurance (NE) disciplines, detailed sport disciplines, the origin of the athletes (African [AFR], South America [SAF], European [EUR], Oceania [OCE]) and the time of blood sampling Higher (M) (AFR) (SAF) Lower (OCE) Lower (M) = (NS)
Mullen et al. [74] Recreational athletes (n = 17) Seventeen women with regular menses were included. Blood samples were collected once a week for two consecutive cycles and analysed for haematological parameters. Menstrual phases were hormonally determined: follicle (T1), ovulatory (T2) and luteal phases (T3) = (NS) Lower − 19% (T1) = (NS) = (NS)
Lobigs [75] Recreational athletes (n = 2222) Reference intervals of healthy athletes were established for 13 haematological parameters. Participants were subsequently characterised into five major ethnic groups: Arabic (G1), Asian (G2), Black (G3), White (G4) and Mixed (G5) Lower (G1) Lower (G3) Lower (G1)
Steiner and Wehrlin [76] Endurance athletes (n = 92) Blood parameters were measured in three endurance athlete groups: AG16 (n = 14), AG21 (n = 14) and AG28 (n = 16), as well as in three age-matched control groups (< 2 h endurance training per week): CG16 (n = 16), CG21 (n = 15) and CG28 (n = 16) Lower − 6% (AG16) = (NS) = (NS) Lower − 6% (AG16) = (NS)
Steiner et al. [77] Endurance athletes (n = 22) Several venous blood parameters were assessed in ten male adolescent endurance athletes (five XC-skiers and five triathletes) at seven time points in 6-month intervals, resulting in a monitoring phase of 3 years = (NS) = (NS) = (NS) ↑ (3 y.)
  1. Numbers represent the relative changes during the most significant measurement: haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocytes percentage (Ret%), OFF-Score (OFFS), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV). Values in italics correspond to absolute variations