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Table 1 Changes of haematological variables related to rhEPO doping protocol

From: Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors Subjects Interventions [Hb] Ret% OFFs Hct PV
rhEPO doping        
Bejder, Aachmann-Andersen et al. [15] Recreational athletes (n = 16) Sixteen subjects received either 65 IU rhEPO·kg−1 every second day for 2 weeks (G1/normal-dose) or 390 IU rhEPO·kg−1 on 3 consecutive days (G2/high-dose) for 13 d in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design =/= ↑ + 81% ↓ − 14%
(NS) ↑ + 135% (11 d) ↓ − 21% (11 d)
  ↓ − 26% ↑ + 18%
  ↓ − 21% ↑ + 13%
  (25 d) (25 d)
Bornø et al. [16] Recreational athletes (n = 24) Twenty-four human subjects divided into three groups with eight subjects each were injected with rhEPO. The G1 and G2 groups received rhEPO for a 4-week period with 2 weeks of boosting followed by 2 weeks of maintenance and a washout period of 3 weeks. G3 received rhEPO for a 10-week period: boost (3 weeks/T1), maintenance (7 weeks/T2) and washout (1 week/T3) =
(T1) (T1) (T1)
(T3) (T3) (T3)
Clark et al. [17] Recreational athletes (n = 16) Eight subjects were assigned to receive six subcutaneous high-doses of 250 IU·kg−1 of rhEPO over 2 weeks (G1) while eight other subjects were assigned to receive six high-doses plus nine rhEPO micro-doses over a further 3 weeks (G2) ↑ + 1.5  + 0.7% ↓ − 37pt ↑ + 6% ↓ − 6dL
↑ + 2.8 g·dL−1  + 1.0% ↓ − 17pt ↑ + 10% ↓ − 2dL
(2 weeks) (2 weeks) ↑ (2 weeks) (2 weeks) (2 weeks)
   ↑ (4 weeks)   
Ashenden et al. [18] Recreational athletes (n = 10) Ten subjects were given twice-weekly intravenous micro-dose injections of rhEPO for up to 12 weeks. All subjects received the same total quantity of rhEPO (adjusted for body weight) during the titration phase = = =
   (NS) (NS) (NS)   
Haile et al. [19] Runners (n = 20) Twenty well-trained Kenyan endurance runners living and training at approximately 2150 m received rhEPO injections of 50 IU·kg−1 body mass every 2 d for 4 weeks. This cohort (KEN) was compared with a previously published cohort (SCO) of 19 Scottish endurance-trained men based at or near sea level ↑ + 10% ↑ + 10%
(4 weeks) (4 weeks) (4 weeks) (4 weeks)
   
   (6 weeks)  
  1. Numbers represent the relative changes during the most significant measurement: haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocytes percentage (Ret%), OFF-Score (OFFS), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV). Values in italics correspond to absolute variations