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Table 2 Repeated measures analyses of variance for different outcome criteria

From: Psychological Effects of Whole-body Electromyostimulation Training: a Controlled Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers

Clinical scale Effect Group N Pre M(SD) Post M(SD) M(SD)a F(df) p f
Subjective well-being Treatment EMS 25 64.12 (22.43) 84.28 (13.29) 20.16 (16.75) 7.85 (1.23) .01* 0.58**
SHAM 25 66.68 (28.21) 74.80 (23.12) 8.12 (18.52)    
Sequence EMS–SHAM 12     1.86 (1.23) .19 0.28*
SHAM–EMS 13       
Treatment * sequence       0.24 (1.23) .63 0.10
Subjective relaxation Treatment EMS 25 64.12 (20.95) 79.04 (15.60) 14.92 (19.63) 5.10 (1.23) .03* 0.47**
SHAM 25 64.56 (27.´´35) 70.60 (24.97) 6.04 (12.62)    
Sequence EMS–SHAM 12     0.22 (1.23) .65 0.10
SHAM–EMS 13       
Treatment * sequence       1.75 (1.23) .20 0.28*
MDBF
awaketired
Treatment EMS 25 12.60 (3.98) 17.16 (1.80) 4.56 (4.02) 25.75 (1.23) <.001*** 1.06**
SHAM 25 14.80 (3.00) 14.88 (2.11) 0.08 (2.90)    
Sequence EMS–SHAM 12     1.84 (1.23) .19 0.28*
SHAM–EMS 13       
Treatment * sequence       0.50 (1.23) .49 0.15
MDBF
goodbad
Treatment EMS 25 16.04 (2.44) 17.60 (1.78) 1.56 (2.99) 0.40 (1.23) .53 0.13
SHAM 25 15.76 (2.79) 16.96 (2.19) 1.20 (1.91)    
Sequence EMS–SHAM 12     1.07 (1.23) .31 0.22
SHAM–EMS 13       
Treatment * sequence       2.60 (1.23) .12 0.34*
MDBF
calmnervous
Treatment EMS 25 14.84 (2.62) 16.80 (2.21) 1.96 (2.96) 2.45 (1.23) .13 0.33*
SHAM 25 14.72 (3.34) 15.80 (2.99) 1.08 (1.75)    
Sequence EMS–SHAM 12     0.74 (1.23) .40 0.18
SHAM–EMS 13       
Treatment * sequence       0.81 (1.23) .38 0.19
RESTQEBF Treatment EMS 25 5.88 (1.32) 5.89 (1.42) 0.01 (1.08) 0.19 (1.23) .66 0.09
SHAM 25 5.84 (1.54) 5.78 (1.40) -0.06 (0.73)    
Sequence EMS–SHAM 12     0.46 (1.23) .50 0.14
SHAM–EMS 13       
Treatment * sequence       3.20 (1.23) .08 0.37*
  1. Abbreviations: EMS electromyostimulation, Sham control training (without the application of electrical impulses), MDBF Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaires, RESTQEBF Recovery–Stress Questionnaires/Erholungs-Belastungs-Fragebögen, N number of subjects, Pre M(SD) pre-treatment mean (standard deviation), Post M(SD) post-treatment mean (standard deviation), F(df) F test (degrees of freedom), p p value, f effect size
  2. a∆ = difference measured between pre- and post-treatment
  3. p < .05: significant*; p < .01: very significant**; p < .001: highly significant***
  4. f = .10: small effect; f = .25: medium effect*; f = .40: large effect**