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Table 3 Strength outcomes stratified by age (A), exercise volume (B), protein intake (C), and biological sex (D)

From: Sarcopenic Characteristics of Active Older Adults: a Cross-Sectional Exploration

  Leg press (kg/BM) Chest press (kg/BM) Lat pull down (kg/BM) Handgrip, dominant (kg)
A.
 Middle
n = 26
2.2 (2.0 to 2.3) 0.8 (0.8 to 1.0) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.3) 38.7 (34.1 to 43.0)
 Older
n = 27
1.8 (1.5 to 2.0) 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) 0.9 (0.8 to 1.0) 37.3 (33.5 to 41.0)
p value .008 .042 .047 .264
B.
 Low
n = 15
1.6 (1.3 to 1.9) 0.6 (0.5 to 0.8) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.0) 34.4 (27.7 to 41.0)
 Moderate
n = 24
2.1 (1.9 to 2.4) 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.0) 40.5(36.3 to 44.6)
 High
n = 14
2.2 (1.9 to 2.4) 0.8 (0.7 to 1.0) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 37.0 (28.3 to 39.7)
p value .051 .195 .289 .351
C.
 Low
n = 8
1.8 (1.4 to 2.1) 0.7 (0.6 to 0.9) 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) 44.3 (35.8 to 52.8)
 Moderate
n = 12
1.7 (1.4 to 2.1) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.0) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.0) 36.5 (29.4 to 43.7)
 High
n = 33
2.1 (1.9 to 2.3) 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 36.4 (32.7 to 40.1)
p value .053 .232 .289 .239
D.
 Males
n = 36
2.1 (1.9 to 2.2) 0.9 (0.8 to 0.9) 1.1 (1.0 to 1.1) 42.6 (40.0 to 45.3)
 Females
n = 17
1.7 (1.4 to 2.0) 0.6 (0.5 to 0.7) 0.7 (0.7 to 0.8) 25.8 (23.0 to 29.0)
p value .011 < .001 < .001 < .001
  1. Mean (95% CI). (A) Age: middle-age (50–59 years) and older (≥ 60 years). (B) Exercise volume: low (≥ 90–149 min), moderate (≥ 150–299 min), high (≥ 300 min). (C) Protein intake: low (≤ 0.8 g/kg BM/day), moderate (≥ 0.8–1.19 g/kg BM/ day), high (≥ 1.2 g/kg BM/day). (D) Males and females. Abbreviations: BM body mass