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Table 3 Recruitment of females by exercise type, WHO region and clinical outcome

From: The Underrepresentation of Females in Studies Assessing the Impact of High-Dose Exercise on Cardiovascular Outcomes: a Scoping Review

  Number of studies Number of studies excluding females Percentage of studies excluding females (%) Mean percentage females recruited per study (%)
Exercise type
 Running 109 64 58.7 14.5
 Triathlon 25 12 48.0 14.0
 Cross-country skiing 24 14 58.3 12.6
 Mixed 63 25 39.7 22.3
 Other 29 12 41.4 31.5
WHO region
 African region 2 2 100.0 0.0
 Region of the Americas 67 26 38.8 27.6
 Eastern Mediterranean region 0 0 NA NA
 European region 165 89 54.5 15.3
 Southeast Asia region 0 0 NA NA
 Western Pacific region 16 10 62.5 11.5
Clinical outcome
 Arrhythmia 31 12 38.7 18.7
 Cardiomyopathy 11 5 45.5 12.8
 Ischaemic heart disease 10 8 80.0 6.2
 Other 26 10 38.5 21.7