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Table 5 Best level of evidence synthesis PCRT vs GE

From: Posterior-Chain Resistance Training Compared to General Exercise and Walking Programmes for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain in the General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Study Study qualitya Effect statistic (95% CI) Descriptor of magnitude Level of evidence b
Pain
VAS and NPRS
  6–8 weeks
   Aasa et al. 2015 [30] Good − 0.13 [− 0.60, 0.34] Trivial Moderate
   Atalay et al. 2017 [36] Fair − 0.33 [− 1.21, 0.56] Small
   Cai et al. 2015 [31] Good − 0.30 [− 0.85, 0.25] Small
   Suh et al. 2019 [35] Good − 0.50 [− 1.34, 0.34] Moderate
   Overall 6–8 weeks   − 0.26 [− 0.56, 0.05] Small  
  12–16 weeks
   Cortell-Tormo et al. 2018 [14] Good − 0.83 [− 1.67, 0.01] Large Strong
   Hurley et al. 2015 [32] Good 0.17 [− 0.16, 0.50] Small
   Jackson et al. 2011 [MA] [33] Good − 0.92 [− 1.68, − 0.16] Large
   Jackson et al. 2011 [OA] [33] Good − 0.91 [− 1.67, − 0.15] Large
   Kell et al. 2009 [34] Good − 0.87 [− 1.85, 0.10] Large
   Overall 12–16 weeks   − 0.61 [− 1.21, 0.00] Moderate  
   Overall pain   − 0.41 [− 0.72, − 0.10] Small Strong
Disability
ODI and PSFS
  6–8 weeks
   Aasa et al. 2015 [30] Good − 0.38 [− 0.85, 0.09] Small Moderate
   Atalay et al. 2017 [36] Fair − 0.22 [− 1.10, 0.66] Small
   Cai et al. 2015 [31] Good 0.15 [− 0.40, 0.70] Trivial
   Suh et al. 2019 [35] Good − 0.05 [− 0.88, 0.77] Trivial
   Overall 6–8 weeks   − 0.15 [− 0.46, 0.16] Trivial  
  12–16 weeks
   Cortell-Tormo et al. 2018 [14] Good − 0.91 [− 1.76, − 0.06] Large Strong
   Hurley et al. 2015 [32] Good − 0.02 [− 0.35, 0.31] Trivial
   Jackson et al. 2011 [MA] [33] Good − 0.74 [− 1.49, 0.00] Moderate
   Jackson et al. 2011 [OA] [33] Good − 0.75 [− 1.49, − 0.00] Moderate
   Kell et al. 2009 [34] Good − 0.75 [− 1.72, 0.21] Moderate
   Overall 12–16 weeks   − 0.53 [− 0.97, − 0.09] Moderate  
   Overall LOD   − 0.31 [− 0.56, − 0.06] Small Strong
Strength
   6–8 weeks
   Aasa et al. 2015 [30] Good 0.19 [− 0.28, 0.66] Trivial Conflicting
   Atalay et al. 2017 [36] Fair 0.41 [− 0.48, 1.30] Small
   Cai et al. 2015 [31] Good 0.51 [− 0.04, 1.07] Moderate
   Overall 6–8 weeks   0.34 [0.00, 0.67] Small  
  12–16 weeks
   Jackson et al. 2011 [MA] [33] Good 0.67 [− 0.07, 1.41] Moderate Strong
   Jackson et al. 2011 [OA] [33] Good 0.67 [− 0.07, 1.40] Moderate
   Kell et al. 2009 [34] Good 0.68 [− 0.28, 1.64] Moderate
   Overall 12–16 weeks   0.67 [0.21, 1.13] Moderate  
   Overall strength   0.45 [0.18, 0.72] Small Strong
  1. PCRT posterior chain resistance training; GE general exercise; CI confidence intervals; VAS visual analogue scale; NPRS Numerical Pain Rating Scale; ODI Oswestry Disability Index; PSFS Patient-Specific Functional Scale
  2. aStudy quality determined from quality assessment using Furlan et al. [22]
  3. bLevel of evidence approach criteria is shown in Table 2. Descriptors – intervention favoured