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Table 2 Levels of evidence approach [22]

From: Posterior-Chain Resistance Training Compared to General Exercise and Walking Programmes for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain in the General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Level of evidence Criteria
Strong Consistenta findings from 3 or more high-quality studies
Moderate Consistenta findings from at least 1 high-quality and 1 low-quality study
Limited Consistenta findings in > 1 low-quality study or only one study available
Conflicting Inconsistent evidence in multiple studies irrespective of study quality
No evidence No studies found
  1. aConsistent was interpreted as > 60% of studies trending from the line of no effect in either direction