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Table 3 Significant differences in muscle activation and kinetic outcomes between the walking/carrying exercises

From: Correction to: The biomechanics and applications of strongman exercises: a systematic review

 Farmers walk [35]LH suitcase carry [35]RH suitcase carry [35]Yoke walk [35]
Muscle activity (%MVC)
 Left upper erector spinae77.6 ± 29.3 ‡47.1 ± 6.2032.4 ± 4.60 *☼69.3 ± 17.5 ‡
 Right upper erector spinae91.4 ± 54.7 †24.9 ± 17.6 *‡☼52.1 ± 17.3 †65.6 ± 14.4†
 Left lower erector spinae106 ± 51.1 †31.6 ± 10.1 *‡☼77.4 ± 21.3 †79.2 ± 10.2 †
 Right lower erector spinae144 ± 36.7 ‡96.9 ± 20.4 ‡44.1 ± 9.10 *†☼107 ± 31.5 ‡
 Left latissimus dorsi169 ± 55.4 *‡97.4 ± 55.768.9 ± 23.2 ☼51.9 ± 26.4 ☼
 Right latissimus dorsi152 ± 26.7 *†65.3 ± 6.20 ☼91.4 ± 39.145.5 ± 31.7 ☼
 Left external oblique39.3 ± 30.6 †12.6 ± 5.30 *‡☼61.5 ± 21.9 †47.5 ± 31.7 †
 Right external oblique50.4 ± 17.4 ‡65.1 ± 24.4 ‡29.0 ± 17.8 *†☼58.8 ± 17.4 ‡
 Right rectus abdominis13.3 ± 3.8014.6 ± 4.505.60 ± 1.80 *22.3 ± 18.1 ‡
 Right gluteus maximus114 ± 70.3 ‡78.2 ± 39.550.5 ± 31.2 *☼113 ± 52.1 ‡
 Right gluteus medius108 ± 66.9 ‡64.1 ± 38.757.3 ± 23.6 *☼108 ± 69.7 ‡
 Right bicep femoris54.0 ± 13.7 †31.2 ± 7.50 *‡ ☼48.3 ± 8.6 †61.7 ± 6.30 †
 Right rectus femoris77.4 ± 35.641.1 ± 9.20 *56.5 ± 11.5 *107 ± 23.5 †‡
Kinetic
 Muscular anterior/posterior shear (N)2800 †1680 ☼11601890
 Muscular compressive load (N)7900 †5800 *☼67007800 †
 Muscular axial twist stiffness (Nm/rad)27,200 †‡19,100 ☼24,600 ☼25,900
 Muscular flexion/extension stiffness (Nm/rad)35,60024,000 *27,50038,600 †
  1. All data are reported as means ± standard deviation, unless specified otherwise. * significant difference to yoke walk, † significant difference to left hand suitcase carry, ‡ significant difference to right hand suitcase carry, ☼ significant difference to farmers walk, LH left hand, MVC maximum voluntary contraction RH right hand