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Table 4 The influence of contextual factors on the mean difference in rate of muscle glycogen re-synthesis (analysed via restricted maximum likelihood, simple meta-regression) for CHO+PRO vs. CHO treatments

From: The Effect of Consuming Carbohydrate With and Without Protein on the Rate of Muscle Glycogen Re-synthesis During Short-Term Post-exercise Recovery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Effect estimate Mean difference (re-synthesis rate mmol·kg dm−1 h−1)
Covariate Coefficient (95% CI) p value
Relative difference in muscle glycogen immediately post-exercise −0.10 (−0.25 to −0.06) 0.216
Magnitude of energy (kJ) difference between treatments 0.01 (−0.00 to 0.01) 0.084
Whole PRO vs. single/mixed AA 3.46 (−2.84 to 9.77) 0.282
Recovery duration (h) 0.28 (−4.39 to 4.95) 0.906
Mode of exercise (running vs. cycling) 1.33 (−8.12 to 10.8) 0.783
CHO provided is sub-optimal (yes vs. no) 0.73 (−5.79 to 7.26) 0.826
Study quality (Rosendal score %) −0.19 (−0.49 to 0.11) 0.211
  1. PRO protein, CHO carbohydrate, AA amino-acids, kJ kilojoule