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Table 3 Characteristics of included trials evaluating post-exercise muscle glycogen re-synthesis during short-term recovery (≤ 8 h) with provision of CHO + PRO vs. CHO

From: The Effect of Consuming Carbohydrate With and Without Protein on the Rate of Muscle Glycogen Re-synthesis During Short-Term Post-exercise Recovery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Study Participants Mean \( \dot{\boldsymbol{V}}{\mathbf{O}}_{\mathbf{2peak}} \) (mL·kg·min−1) Exercise protocol Post-exercise glycogen (mmol·kg dm−1) control Post-exercise glycogen (mmol·kg dm−1) intervention Type of CHO+PRO Timing of treatment (h) CHO (g·kg BM−1 h−1) control CHO (g·kg BM−1 h−1) intervention PRO (g·kg BM−1 h−1) intervention Recovery time (h) Mean difference in re-synthesis rate (mmol·kg dm−1 h−1)
van Loon et al. [29]a 8 (8M) N.S Cycled to exh: 2-min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 190 174 Glucose + maltodextrin + wheat protein hydrolysate + leucine + phenylalanine 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 0.8 0.8 0.4 5 18.7
Zawadzki et al. [58] 9 (9M) 66.6 Cycled for 2 h alternating between 65 and 85% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 233 217 Dextrose + maltodextrin + milk + WPI 0, 2 0.76 0.76 0.27 4 10.2
Yaspelkis and Ivy [57] 12 (12M) 67.2 Cycled for 2 h alternating between 60 and 80% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 144 134 Maltodextrin + arginine 0, 1, 2, 3 1.0 1.0 0.08 4 9.5
van Hall et al. [27]a 8 (8M) N.S Cycled to exh: 2 min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 107 74 Glucose + wheat protein hydrolysate 0.25, 1, 2 0.8 0.8 0.3 3 5.8
van Hall et al. [27]b 8 (8M) N.S Cycled to exh: 2-min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 107 108 Glucose + WPH 0.25, 1, 2 0.8 0.8 0.3 3 4.9
Alghannam et al. [52] 6 (5M) 64.0 Ran to exh at 70% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 103 100 Sucrose + WPH 0, 1, 2, 3 1.2 0.8 0.4 4 4.3
Beelen et al. [59] 14 (14M) 61.5 Cycled to exh: 2-min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 172 184 Maltodextrin + glucose + casein hydrolysate + leucine Every 0.5 1.2 1.2 0.3 6 2.1
Howarth et al. [55]a 6 (6M) 49.3 Cycled for 2 h: 10-min intervals alternating between 50 and 80% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 97 64 Maltodextrin + WPC 0, then at 0.25 until 3 1.2 1.2 0.4 4 1.9
Betts et al. [53] 6 (6M) 61.0 Ran for 1.5 h at 70% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 203 235 Sucrose + WPI 0, .5, 1. 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 0.8 0.8 0.3 4 −0.2
Howarth et al. [55]b 6 (6M) 49.3 Cycled for 2 h: 10-min intervals alternating between 50 and 80% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 85 64 Maltodextrin + WPC 0, then at 0.25 until 3 1.6 1.2 0.4 4 −0.4
Carrithers et al. [47] 8 (8M) 55.7 Cycled for 1.25 h at 70% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak; followed by 6 × 1 min sprint at 125% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 108 89 Sucrose + fructose + dextrose + mixed AA 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 1.0 0.86 0.14 4 −1.3
van Hall et al. [27]c 8 (8M) N.S Cycled to exh: 2-min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 107 80 Glucose + glutamine 0.25, 1, 2 0.8 0.8 0.3 3 −2.0
Cogan et al. [54]a 11 (11M) 61.2 Cycled for 2 h at 70% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 136 134 Glucose + maltodextrin + sodium caseinate 0, 2 0.6 0.5 0.08 4 −2.7
Wang et al. [56]b 10 (7M) 50.2 Cycled for 2 h at 70%\( \dot{V} \)O2peak; followed by 5 × 1 min sprint at 85%\( \dot{V} \)O2peak 114 146 Dextrose + mixed AA 0, 2 0.6 0.6 0.045 4 −3.7
van Hall et al. [28]b 5 (N.S) 61.0 Cycled to exh: 2 min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 90 69 Sucrose + WPH 0, and then every 0.25 (until 3.75)a 1.2 1.2 0.36 4 −4.5
Wang et al. [56]a 10 (7M) 50.2 Cycled for 2 h at 70%\( \dot{V} \)O2peak; followed by 5 × 1 min sprint at 85% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 114 124 Dextrose + mixed AA 0, 2 0.6 0.6 0.09 4 −6.6
Cogan et al. [54]b 11 (11M) 61.2 Cycled for 2 h at 70% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 136 107 Glucose + maltodextrin + sodium caseinate hydrolysate 0, 2 0.6 0.5 0.08 4 −7.1
van Loon et al. [29]b 8 (8M) N.S Cycled to exh: 2-min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 138 174 Glucose + maltodextrin + wheat protein hydrolysate + leucine + phenylalanine 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 1.2 0.8 0.4 5 −9.6
Jentjens et al. [60] 8 (8M) 63.3 Cycled to exh: 2-min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 106 176 Glucose + maltodextrin + wheat protein hydrolysate + leucine + phenylalanine 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 1.2 1.2 0.4 3 −14.4
  1. All trials tabulated used a randomised, controlled, within-subject experimental design. ‘a’, ‘b’, and ‘c’ refer to separate trials derived from a single research study
  2. N.S not specified, M male, min minute, exh exhaustion, \( \dot{V} \)O2peak peak maximal oxygen uptake, BM body mass, dm dry mass, CHO carbohydrate, PRO protein, AA amino acids, WPI whey protein isolate, WPC whey protein concentrate; WPH: whey protein hydrolysate, mix mixture
  3. aEstimated last beverage was consumed at 3.75 h