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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials evaluating post-exercise muscle glycogen re-synthesis during short-term recovery (≤ 8 h) with provision of CHO vs. control

From: The Effect of Consuming Carbohydrate With and Without Protein on the Rate of Muscle Glycogen Re-synthesis During Short-Term Post-exercise Recovery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Study Participants Mean \( \dot{\boldsymbol{V}}{\mathbf{O}}_{\mathbf{2peak}} \) (mL kg min−1) Fasted vs. Fed Exercise protocol End of exercise glycogen – control
(mmol·kg dm−1)
End of exercise glycogen – intervention (mmol·kg dm−1) Source of CHO Timing of treatment (h) CHO (g·kg BM−1 h−1) Recovery time (h) Mean difference in re-synthesis rate (mmol·kg dm−1 h−1)
Mathai et al. [46] 7 (7 M) 48.4 Fed Cycled to exh at 65% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 146 82 Maltodextrin + dextrose 0, 1 1.0 2 59.0
Pascoe et al. [49] 8 (8 M) N.S Fasted Resistance training: 6 single leg knee ext at 70% 1RM/set x ~ 9 set with 30 s recovery between set 441 399 Glucose polymers + sucrose 0, 1 1.5 2 47.8
Cheng et al. [42] 8 (8 M) 48.5 Fasted Cycled for 1 h at 60% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak; followed by 4 × 30 s all-out sprints 30 12 Glucose + fructose 0, then every 0.25 (until 2.5) 1.5 3 36.1
Tarnopolsky et al. [26] 16 (8 M) M: 56.9
F: 51.7
Fasted Cycled for 1.5 h at 65% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 210 163 Sucrose + glucose polymer 0, 1 0.5 4 30.6
van Hall et al. [28]a 5 (N.S) 61.0 N.S Cycled to exh: 2-min intervals alternating between 50 and 90% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 78 90 Sucrose 0, then every 0.25 (until 3.75)a 1.2 4 28.8
Wilson et al. [50] 10 (10 M) 54.8 Fed Cycled to exh at 65% of \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 74 109 Dextrose 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 1.0 5 25.1
Ivy et al. [8]b 8 (8 M) 52.2 Fasted Cycled for 2 h: 15-min intervals alternating between 62 and 75% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 158 139 Glucose polymer 0 1.5 2 19.1
Roy and Tarnopolsky [51] 10 (10 M) N.S Fed Resistance training: whole-body workout; ~ 10 rep at ~ 80% 1RM /set x 3 set x 9 exercises + 20 sit-ups 248 235 Sucrose + glucose polymer 0, 1 0.5 4 17.3
Ivy et al. [8]a 8 (8 M) 52.2 Fasted Cycled for 2 h: 15-min intervals alternating between 62 and 75% \( \dot{V} \)O2peak 158 156 Glucose polymer 0 0.75 2 16.5
Haub et al. [45] 6 (6 M) 50.8 Fed Cycled: 100 kJ test (at 90% peak resistance achieved during GXT) 429 406 Maltodextrin 0 0.7 1 14.4
  1. All trials tabulated used a randomised, controlled, within-subject experimental design. Fasted vs. Fed: whether participants were fed or fasted prior to exercise. ‘a’ and ‘b’ refer to separate trials derived from a single research study
  2. N.S not specified, M male, F female, exh exhaustion, Rep repetition, ext extension, RM repetition max, min minute, \( \dot{V} \)O2peak peak maximal oxygen uptake, BM body mass, dm dry mass, kJ kilojoule, GXT graded exercise test
  3. aEstimated last beverage was consumed at 3.75 h